The Psychology of Expertise: Cognitive Research and Empirical AI

By Robert R. Hoffman | Go to book overview

Notes
1.
Apple and Lisa are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Regarding the Lisa computer workstation, a disclaimer is in order: The Lisa workstation was not necessarily intended to be learned without instruction. Indeed, the system was accompanied by documentation, and an on-line tutorial on basic elements of user. We know of no software system, Lisa included, that claims to be so intuitive for users that they can simply walk up and use it without training or effort. This is a worthy goal, however, and we were interested in the extent to which the Lisa approximated this possibility through its graphical direct manipulation interface style.

Acknowledgments. We thank John Gould, Jakob Nielsen, and Robert Campbell for useful comments on earlier presentations of the research reported here, and we thank Robert Hoffman for extensive comments on the current chapter. This chapter is based on a presentation, "Coaching Computer Users as a Technique for Software Evaluation and Design," given at the Seventh Annual Adelphi Conference on Applied Experimental Psychology: Expert Systems and the Psychology of Expertise, May 5, 1988, Adelphi University, Long Island, New York.


References

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Bainbridge L. ( 1979). "Verbal reports as evidence of the process operator's knowledge". International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 11,411-436.

Bott R. ( 1979, March). "A study of complex learning: Theory and methodologies". (CHIP Report 82). University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Campbell R. ( 1990). "Online assistance: Conceptual issues". (Research Report RC 15407). New York: IBM, Thomas J. Watson Research Center.

Campbell R., & DiBello L. ( 1989). "An empirical evaluation of a system for on-line assistance". Unpublished manuscript.

Card S., Moran T., & Newell A. ( 1983). The psychology of human-computer interaction. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

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Carroll J., & Campbell R. ( 1986). "Softening up hard science: Reply to Newell and Card". HumanComputer Interaction, 2,227-249.

Carroll J., & Mack R. ( 1983). "Actively learning to use a word processor". In W. Cooper (Ed.), Cognitive aspects of skilled typewriting (pp. 259- 282). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Carroll J., & Mack R. ( 1984). "Learning to use a word processor: By doing, thinking and knowing". In M. Schneider & J. Thomas (Eds.), Human factors in computer systems (pp. 13-51). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Carroll J., & Mack R. ( 1985). "Metaphor, computing systems, and active learning". International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 91,39-57.

Carroll J., Mack R., & Kellogg W. ( 1988). In M. Helander (Ed.), Handbook of humancomputer interaction (pp. 67-85). New York: Springer-Verlag.

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Carroll J., & Mazur S. ( 1986, November). "Lisa Learning". Computer Magazine. pp. 35-49.

Carroll J., & Rosson M. B. ( 1987). "The paradox of the active user". In R. Hartson (Ed.), Advances in human-computer interaction (pp. 80-111). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Cawsey A. ( 1989). "Explanatory dialogues". Interacting With Computers, 1,73-92.

Douglas S., & Moran T. ( 1983). "Learning textediting semantics by analogy". Proceedings of CHI'83 Conference on Human Factors in Computer Systems (pp. 207-211). Boston, Massachusetts. New York: Association for Computing Machinery.

Erhardt J. ( 1983, January). "Apple's Lisa: A personal office system". The Seybold Report on Professional Computing. Media, PA. Seybold Publications, Inc.

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Ericsson K., & Simon H. ( 1984). Verbal protocol analysis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books.

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