The Psychology of Expertise: Cognitive Research and Empirical AI

By Robert R. Hoffman | Go to book overview
seems outright irrelevant to a recently evolved technological field like programming: What is the appropriate historical analogy? What do programmers recapitulate in their development?
2.
Strictly speaking, avionics and Smalltalk programming are fields, not domains. Domain is a psychological concept. We define a domain as an area of representation for which the learner has common learning and problem-solving heuristics. This definition implies that domains need not correspond to externally defined fields, and that the identification of domains is an empirical question.
3.
There are several versions of Smalltalk, which differ in many details. Our examples are exclusively drawn from Smalltalk/V286 ( Digitalk, 1988).
4.
We follow standard computer science practice by citing Smalltalk code in a special type font.

Acknowledgments. Portions of this chapter were presented at the ONR Workship on Models of Complex Human Learning, Cornell University, and at the Software Psychology Society colloquium, George Washington University. All three authors were at the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center when these studies were conducted. Lia DiBello collected six of the seven general interviews. Norman Brown conducted the tape diary study. Thanks to Linda Celtruda and Phyllis Aycock for transcribing the interviews and diaries, to Robert Hoffman for many excellent editorial suggestions, and to Bob Cooper and Stephen Payne for their comments on earlier versions.


References

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Bickhard M. H., & Terveen L. ( 1991). The impasse of artificial intelligence and cognitive science. Unpublished manuscript, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA.

Brooks R. ( 1989). "Personal communication", Austin, TX, October 3, 1989.

Campbell R. L. ( 1989). Developmental levels and scenarios for Smalltalk programming. (IBM Research Report RC15305). IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY.

Campbell R. L. ( 1990). "Developmental scenario analysis of Smalltalk programming". In J. C. Chew & J. C. Whiteside (Eds.), Proceedings of the CHI'90 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 269-276). New York: Association for Computing Machinery.

Campbell R. L., & Bickhard M. H. ( 1986). Knowing levels and developmental stages. Basel: Karger.

Campbell R. L., Carroll J. M., & DiBello L. A. ( 1989, June). Human-computer interaction: The case for a developmental approach to expertise. Paper presented at the Jean Piaget Society meeting, Philadelphia.

Campbell R. L., Roemer J. M., & Mack R. L. ( 1989, May). Extending the scope of field research in HCI. Panel presentation at the CHI'89 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Austin, TX.

Chase W. G., & Simon H. A. ( 1973). "The mind's eye in chess". In W. G. Chase (Ed.), Visual information processing. New York: Academic Press.

Chi M. T. H., Glaser R., & Rees E. ( 1982). "Expertise in problem solving". In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Advances in the psychology of human intelligence (Vol. 1, pp. 7-75). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Collins W. A. (Ed.). ( 1982). The concept of development. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Curtis B. ( 1986). "By the way, did anyone study any real programmers?" In E. Soloway & S. Iyengar (Eds.), Empirical studies of programmers (pp. 256-262). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Curtis B. ( 1988). "The impact of individual differences in programmers". In G. C. van der Veer, T. R. G. Green , J.-M. Hoc, & D. M. Murray (Eds.), Working with computers: Theory versus outcome (pp. 279-294). London: Academic Press.

Curtis B., Krasner H., & Iscoe N. ( 1988). "A field study of the software design process for large systems". Communications of the ACM, 31, 1268-1287.

de A. Ribaupierre ( 1989). "Epilogue: On the use of longitudinal research in developmental psychology". In A. de Ribaupierre (Ed.), Transition mechanisms in child development: The longitudinal perspective (pp. 297-317). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

-292-

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