Acknowledgments. Portions of this chapter were presented at the ONR Workship on Models of Complex Human Learning, Cornell University, and at the Software Psychology Society colloquium, George Washington University. All three authors were at the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center when these studies were conducted. Lia DiBello collected six of the seven general interviews. Norman Brown conducted the tape diary study. Thanks to Linda Celtruda and Phyllis Aycock for transcribing the interviews and diaries, to Robert Hoffman for many excellent editorial suggestions, and to Bob Cooper and Stephen Payne for their comments on earlier versions.
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