Chapter Seven
EARLY WORKS

APPRENTICESHIP AT EPIDAURUS?

In view of the considerable debt which the Tegea sculptures seem to owe to their counterparts from the temple of Asklepios, it seems reasonable to suggest that it was here, perhaps about 375, that Skopas received his apprenticeship in marble carving. Such humble beginnings were not unknown in the ancient world--Lysippos seems to have begun as a journeyman, 1 and many of the great Renaissance masters were to do so again two thousand years later. Although the Tegea sculptures seem to derive at least some inspiration from both sets of akroteria and pediments, since the vast majority of the correspondences we have noted are with the east pediment we may perhaps go further and imagine that Skopas' 'master' was either Hektoridas or the sculptor whose name is defaced in the building accounts.

Unfortunately, it has yet to be established exactly who was responsible for which pediment; 2 we only know that Timotheos took the akroteria above -----'s pediment, and Theo ----- those above Hektoridas'. Burford suggests that the missing name is Theo ----- (Theon or Theodotos?), since the same guarantor appears in the accounts for both Theo -----'s akroteria and -----'s pediment; this is possible, but no more than that, for guarantors backing two, three, or even four contractors occur often in the building inscription. It would also require some similarity in style between one set of akroteria and the pediment at the opposite end of the temple. This rules out the east akroteria and west pediment, where there is no such similarity, though as regards the other pair it is just conceivable that the same sculptor was responsible for the 'Epione' and for certain of the figures of the east pediment, NM 146 and 4750 for example, 3 where the drapery style, is not dissimilar.

As for external evidence, what there is tends to link the name of Timotheos with the eastern akroteria. To begin with, he was chosen to make the τύποι; 4 if these are moulded terracotta models as Blümel suggests (and the word would not be inappropriate here for pieces like the Hygieia discussed in Chapter 5), he would have been the leading sculptor and thus entrusted with these akroteria as the most important of the sculptures. That he is the only artist of the three whose name is known elsewhere only serves to strengthen this possibility. 5 Lastly, the drapery style of the 'Apollo' and the undeveloped body of the girl- Nike NM 162 (PLATE 26a) recur on the copies of the Leda, long attributed to Timotheos, though not mentioned in the sources. 6

If these suggestions, admittedly based on very tenuous evidence, are correct, the sequence would be as follows: Timotheos, eastern akroteria; ----- (perhaps Theo-----), east pediment; Theo -----, western akroteria; Hektoridas, west pediment. The name of Skopas' suggested 'master' thus remains unknown, or at best conjectural, though if it was at Epidaurus that he served his apprenticeship, it is clear that we need go no further to seek the reason why the style of Timotheos (if that be identical with the style of the Leda, PLATE 25d) was to influence him so heavily in the early part of his career.


HERAKLES AT SICYON

The sole complete example of the type of Herakles with a vine, ivy or laurel wreath in his hair, 7 long thought to copy the statue carved by Skopas for the

-90-

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Skopas of Paros
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Acknowledgements vi
  • Contents vii
  • List of Illustrations (at End) ix
  • Abbreviations xiii
  • Introduction: Methods of Approach 1
  • Part I: the Tegea Sculptures 5
  • Chapter One - Technique 39
  • Chapter Two - Composition 48
  • Chapter Three - Iconography and Interpretation 59
  • Chapter Four - Style 70
  • Chapter Five - Skopas in Tegea 80
  • Part Ii: Skopas 85
  • Chapter Six - Antecedents 85
  • Appendix 90
  • Chapter Eight Skopas in Asia 101
  • Chapter Nine Late Works 110
  • Part Iii: Documentation 126
  • Appendix 1 the Literary Sources 126
  • Notes 135
  • Appendix 2 Classical, Hellenistic and Roman Representations of the Calydonian Hunt 136
  • Appendix 3 the Arcadian Dynasty 138
  • Appendix 4 Copies of Major Works Considered in Chafters 7-9 139
  • Appendix 5 Proportions of the Los Angeles Herakles, Lansdowne Herakles and Meleager (cf. Plates 31, 42 and 44) 147
  • Select Bibliography 149
  • Notes 152
  • General Index 177
  • Index of Sources 183
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