SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

Although it is almost a century since the first excavations at Tegea (by Milchhöfer in 1879), no critical study of the whole of Skopas' surviving oeuvre has yet emerged. To date, the nearest is Arias' Skopas ( 1952), which has a useful bibliography, but which unfortunately abounds in errors, both factual and typographical, and also includes a large amount of extraneous material with a minimum of critical comment. The most sensible of the many discussions limited to only a few works are Graef "'Herakles des Skopas und Verwandtes'" ( RM 4 [ 1889], 189-226), which discusses the copies of the Genzano Herakles and the Meleager, and Neugebauer Studien über Skopas ( 1913), which deals with Tegea, the Maenad and the Mausoleum; both were written before Dugas' publication of the Tegea sculptures and are now rather out of date, and in both cases study of the Tegea material at first hand was limited to the heads alone. Other contributions to the debate, such as those of Berchmans in Mélanges Holleaux ( 1913), and Morgan in Studies presented to Edward Capps ( 1936), are less satisfactory.

Accounts of Skopas' career in the handbooks are numerous but by their very nature cursory. A really firm base for their attributions, in the form of a strong grasp of the essentials of the Tegea style, is often lacking, and some of the attributions themselves highly improbable in consequence. Perhaps the best are to be found in Lippold Die griechische Plastik ( 1951) and in the Encyclopedia of World Art, s.v. 'Skopas' ( 1967); Furtwängler's comments in Masterpieces of Greek Sculpture ( English edition, 1895) are still useful. Of those surveys more accessible to the layman, the most informative and shrewd is undoubtedly that in A. W. Lawrence Greek and Roman Sculpture ( 1972), which is perhaps the best account of ancient sculpture now available in any language.

As for the Tegea sculptures themselves, Dugas', Berchmans' and Clemmensen Le Sanctuaire d' Aléa Athéna à Tégée ( 1924) is still the definitive publication of all the sculptures found up to that date, although it, too, has its defects, especially when compared with Treu's exemplary publication of the Olympia sculptures some twenty-five years earlier. The most glaring are the lack of any discussion of the technique of the fragments, which is remediable, and the failure to record their exact find-circumstances, which is not. Berchmans' study of Skopas, mentioned above, and his attribution to him, for example, of the "'Maussolos'" from Halicarnassus (BM 1000), further weakens my confidence in his critical acumen. Recent excavations by the Greek Archaeological Service at Tegea have yet to be published; preliminary notices are listed in the bibliographies in the Catalogue. The iconographical studies of the Tegea material by Picard and Delivorrias are discussed in Chapter 3.

Finally, specialist studies of works attributed to Skopas are many, and would be impossible to comment upon here; these are assembled in the bibliographies to the various copies in Appendix 4.

-149-

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Skopas of Paros
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Acknowledgements vi
  • Contents vii
  • List of Illustrations (at End) ix
  • Abbreviations xiii
  • Introduction: Methods of Approach 1
  • Part I: the Tegea Sculptures 5
  • Chapter One - Technique 39
  • Chapter Two - Composition 48
  • Chapter Three - Iconography and Interpretation 59
  • Chapter Four - Style 70
  • Chapter Five - Skopas in Tegea 80
  • Part Ii: Skopas 85
  • Chapter Six - Antecedents 85
  • Appendix 90
  • Chapter Eight Skopas in Asia 101
  • Chapter Nine Late Works 110
  • Part Iii: Documentation 126
  • Appendix 1 the Literary Sources 126
  • Notes 135
  • Appendix 2 Classical, Hellenistic and Roman Representations of the Calydonian Hunt 136
  • Appendix 3 the Arcadian Dynasty 138
  • Appendix 4 Copies of Major Works Considered in Chafters 7-9 139
  • Appendix 5 Proportions of the Los Angeles Herakles, Lansdowne Herakles and Meleager (cf. Plates 31, 42 and 44) 147
  • Select Bibliography 149
  • Notes 152
  • General Index 177
  • Index of Sources 183
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