Automation Technology and Human Performance: Current Research and Trends

By Mark W. Scerbo | Go to book overview

Automation and the Air Traffic Controller: Human Factors Considerations

Bert Ruitenberg International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Associations (IFATCA)


INTRODUCTION

The similarities between Air Traffic Control (ATC) Operations and Aircrew working with electronic flight-deck presentations may seem remote, but there are signs that aircrew operating in such an environment are identifying problems associated with automated controls and data. Aircrews are becoming passive monitors rather than active fliers and there have been numerous reports of pilots trying to 'fix' the computer, rather than fly the airplane. Is this the way ahead for the Air Traffic Controller (ATCO)? Will ATCOs become so reliant on automated systems that active participation is reduced to a monitoring status? And will the ATCO be expected to pick up the pieces, and take over, if the computer cannot provide the appropriate solution to the problem?

There are already areas where ATC is being automated in some way or another. In most cases data exchange is being enhanced by computerized Databases and electronic data displays. The introduction of color radar, for instance, allows for a greater measure of enhancement than monochrome. The computerization of Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) is seen as an essential element to efficiently deal with the various flow control rates and increases in traffic demand. However, in the case of the Shanwick Oceanic ATC Centre computer there is a radical move towards a computerized 'control' function, with computer assigned Oceanic clearances being issued. This system has not proved to be fail-safe, nor is it seen as being able to deal with all clearance requests. If it was not for the fact that an ATCO is still needed to provide a clearance that the computer cannot cope with, then it would be quite possible that this system could operate without any ATCO involvement, at all. Air Traffic Control Assistants would input clearance requests and die computer would provide the answer. ATCOs would no longer be necessarily required.

Mode S transponders are already being seen as solution to resolving many ATC problem and difficulties, around the world. Not only to supply the ATCO with seemingly limitless amounts of data, but also to provide a Conflict Alert and Resolution system for aircraft so equipped.

IFATCA policy exists on Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS): "IFATCArecognizes that the development of airborne collision avoidance systems should be encouraged. However, it must be accepted that the primary means of collision avoidance within a controlled airspace environment must continue to be the Air Traffic Control System which should be totally independent of airborne emergency devices such as ACAS, Autonomous airborne devices should not be a consideration in the provision of adequate Air Traffic Services".

IFATCA also draws attention to the compatibility between a controller's responsibility for providing positive separation and with the controller's ability to discharge them.

The International Federation of Air Line Pilots' Associations (IFALPA) also highlights the inherent requirements of a data-link system such as Mode S. The integrity of information should be assured by system design, together with automatic warning in the event of malfunction. The system should be capable of growth and also be standardized. Data link should not supersede the use of voice where this is the optimum. medium. and voice communication should remain available as a back-up. ( IFALPA Annex 10 (COM) Polstat ( April 1987)).

Electronic data screens may replace Flight Progress Strips, but when the TV-monitor fails all the data is immediately lost. The need for a fail-safe system, or immediate access to duplicated standby equipment, is paramount. Human Factor research has already identified that automation does not always reduce ATCO

-102-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Automation Technology and Human Performance: Current Research and Trends
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 348

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.