Automation Technology and Human Performance: Current Research and Trends

By Mark W. Scerbo | Go to book overview

problems. The nature of tile ATC task allows individual controllers to apply differing strategies that result in similar solutions and efficiency of operation.

Automation may limit the freedom of choice for the individual and ATCOs may perceive a loss of control or a reduction in skills to perform their tasks. In efficiency terms, it may be possible to identify and assume that there is only one particular way to complete a task. Though convenient, this will require all ATCOs to be trained in one particular way. If there is no such optimum way, then the machine should not be designed as though there is.

Studies in other safety critical industries, such as nuclear power and the cockpit, have identified undesirable human factors trends within the design and operating philosophy of these system, as a result, the current human factors preference should be to retain the controller as the primary decision maker in future ATC systems, in order to maintain the controller's interest, motivation and skill levels.

There are genuine needs for automation to assist ATCOS, to improve performance and reduce workload, to increase efficiency, to remove non-essential tasks, and to enhance job satisfaction. There is also a need for ATCOs to be involved as an essential part of any future ATC system The man-machine interface needs to be examined closely so that the system fits the man, rather than the other way around. There is a requirement for ATCOs to be involved with evaluations of equipment design and purchase. It is essential that automation work for the benefit of the controller.


IFATCA POLICIES ON AUTOMATION

Automation must improve and enhance the data exchange for controllers. Automated systems must be fail-safe and provide accurate and incorruptible data. These systems must be built with a integrity factor to review and cross-check the information being received.

Automation must assist and support ATCOs in the execution of their duties, to improve performance and reduce workload to remove non-essential tasks, to increase efficiency to enhance not only the job satisfaction of the controller, but also the safety element of the controller's task.

The Human Factors aspects of automation must be fully considered when developing Automated systems and should include the maintenance of essential manual skills and controller awareness.

The controller must remain the key element of the ATC system and must retain the overall control function of the system. Safeguards must be established to ensure that the controller remains an active, rather than a passive, user of an automated system.

The legal aspects of a controller's responsibilities must be clearly identified when working with automated systems.


Additional Policies (1993)

A controller shall not be held liable for incidents that may occur due to the use of inaccurate data if he is unable to check the integrity of the information received.

A controller shall not be held liable for incidents in which a loss of separation occurs due to a resolution advisory issued by an automated system.


REFERENCES

Hopkin V. D. ( 1982). Human Factors in ATC. Nato AGAR Dograph no. 275. Paris.

Hopkin V. D. ( 1989). MMI Problem in designing ATC system. Proceedings of the LE.E.E.

ICAO ( 1994). Human Factors Digest no. II - Human Factors in CNS/ATM-systems. IC40 Circular 249AN 1149. Montreal, Canada.

IFATCA ( 1991). Automation and the ATCO - Human Factors considerations. Working paper for 30thFATCA Annual Conference - Port of Spain, Trinidad

-105-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Automation Technology and Human Performance: Current Research and Trends
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 348

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.