|humans are more efficient. For severe problems, SAA is more effective in managing fluid loss during faults, whether or not the displayed information is reliable.|
The experiment has also shown the need for autonomy which comes between levels 6 and 7 (say, level 6.5) in Table 1. Level 6.5 autonomy is defined as: "The computer executes automatically after telling human what it will do. No veto is allowed for the human." This type of autonomy may be effective to avoid automation surprises ( Sarter & Woods, 1995; Wickens, 1994) induced by safety-related actions by automation under high time-criticality.
This paper has shown, through a mathematical analysis and an experiment, how authority can be traded between human and automation in a situation-adaptive manner. The situation-adaptive autonomy is closely related to the adaptive automation: See ( Scerbo, 1996) for a survey. We need further research for validation of those concepts, because effectiveness may be dependent on task context.
This work has been done jointly with Neville Moray of the University of Surrey and Makoto ltoh of the University of Tsukuba. This work has been supported by the Center for TARA (Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance) at the University of Tsukuba, Grants-in-Aid 08650458 and 09650437 of the Japanese Ministry of Education, and the First Toyota High-Tech Research Grant Program.
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