strategy. Stress processes reflect, in turn, the adaptive basis for the transaction between operator and task environment. Consequences of automation may vary considerably depending on factors such as perceived reliability and controllability of the system, provision of residual tasks for the operator, the wider occupational context for performance, and various intrapersonal factors such as personality and coping style. Hence, there is unlikely to be any simple remedy for stress-related problems associated with automation, such as boredom and complacency. Fine-grained assessment of the operators' states and cognitions is required to determine vulnerabilities to performance breakdown.
Some of this research was supported by a Medical Research Council Grant (G9510930) to the first author. The DSSQ is available to qualified psychologists from the first author.
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