Automation Technology and Human Performance: Current Research and Trends

By Mark W. Scerbo | Go to book overview

Effects of Age and Automation Level on Attitudes Towards Use of an Automated System

James M. Hitt II, Mustapha Mouloua, and Dennis A. Vincenzi Center for Applied Human Factors in Aviation University of Central Florida


INTRODUCTION

As automated systems continue to saturate our daily activities we as human factors specialists and design engineers must be concerned with the issues that may inhibit or promote the use of an automated system. Automated systems are found in many facets of daily life. It is difficult for a person not to see the many daily uses of automated systems. For example, automated teller machines (ATM's) can be used for deposits or withdrawals, transferring funds between accounts, purchasing stamps, making account inquiries and some ATM's can check current exchange prices. Aircraft can now take off, cruise, and land with the use of automated systems. Word processing software can now automatically correct spelling and grammar mistakes. Braking systems for automobiles can now detect the exact amount of pressure to put on the pads to stop the automobile without locking the brakes (often causing an uncontrolled spin). But our point here is not to belabor the existence of automation but to further understand the important design issues for automated systems. One important design issue is how does the age of the system user effect performance.


Aging and Automation Systems and Automation Systems

Several studies have addressed the issue of aging and its effects on human performance in automated systems. Research by Hardy, Mouloua, Molloy, Dwivedi, and Parasuraman ( 1995) examined age differences under dual task conditions using the MAT battery. Their results showed an equal degradation in performance on the two tasks between the young and elder participants. Another study by Hartley ( 1992), revealed that in dual task conditions there is a greater level of divided-attention cost for older adults when compared to younger adults. These studies report varied empirical evidence for an age effect when examining performance in automated systems.

Other studies have addressed such issues as how older adults view automation use. Issues such as reliance ( Riley, 1995), trust ( Muir, 1987), and safety have been cited as important deign considerations for automated systems. Research examining attitudes towards automation use has been conducted on a limited sample size ( Sams, Sierra, Sahagian, Nichols, & Mouloua, 1997). Using a composite score from the Complacency-Potential Rating Scale (CPRS) these researchers revealed a significant difference between age groups with younger adults having a higher level of positive attitudes towards automated systems than older adults. Other studies have examined ATM use by older adults and in several cases the elderly population declared the desire for training programs to further understand the uses of the automated systems. All of these studies have taken different paths to examine possible age related differences when humans interact with automated systems. The purpose of this study is to determine if differences among any of the five components of the CPRS (overall automation, reliance, trust, safety, and confidence) are attributed to age differences and/or exposure to various levels of automation (single, dual, or multi-task). We hypothesize that the CPRS scores will be lower for the elderly population and as the task load increases (more manual control), the scores of CPRS will decrease.

-270-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Automation Technology and Human Performance: Current Research and Trends
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 348

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.