Automation Technology and Human Performance: Current Research and Trends

By Mark W. Scerbo | Go to book overview

Ramifications of Contemporary Research on Stimulus-Response Compatibility for Design of Human-Machine Interfaces

Chen-Hui Lu Providence University, Taiwan

Robert W. Proctor Purdue University


INTRODUCTION

Stimulus-response (S-R) compatibility effects are differences in reaction time (RT) and accuracy of responding as a function of the relation or mapping between stimulus and response sets. Such effects typically are attributed to response-selection processes, that is, to processes that intervene between stimulus identification and execution of a specific motor action. Most well known are spatial compatibility effects, which were first demonstrated by Fitts and colleagues. Fitts and Deininger ( 1954) varied the S-R mapping for circular stimulus and response arrays and showed that responses were fastest and most accurate when each stimulus location was mapped to the corresponding response location. Mapping effects of this type are what are examined most commonly in compatibility studies.

Spatial compatibility is described in most textbooks and handbooks on Human Factors and Ergonomics (e.g., Sanders & McCormick, 1993), and other types of compatibility are often mentioned as well, for example, conceptual compatibility, modality compatibility, and so on. Consequently, virtually all ergonomists are familiar with the principle of using compatible display-control sets and mappings when possible. However, the treatments given S-R compatibility typically are rudimentary and do not reflect the level of empirical and theoretical knowledge on the topic that exists at present.

The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief survey of current theoretical and conceptual views regarding the determinants of spatial compatibility effects. We will also examine implications of these views and of pertinent empirical findings for display-control design.


SPATIAL CODING

Central to most accounts of S-R compatibility is the concept of coding. In the case of spatial compatibility effects, the emphasis is on spatial codes that mediate between stimuli and responses. Evidence for spatial codes is most apparent in two-choice reaction tasks, where a left or right keypress response is to be made to a left or right stimulus. The spatially direct mapping is faster than the indirect mapping, even when the arms are crossed so that the left response key is pressed by the right hand and the right response key with the left hand (e.g., Dutta & Proctor, 1992). In most situations, the spatial codes are based on relative location, that is, regardless of whether the display or response keys are directly in front of the performer or to the side, the mapping of left-to-left and right-to-right is superior to the reversed mapping (e.g., Proctor, Van Zandt, Lu, & Weeks, 1993). It is worth pointing out that spatial compatibility effects also occur when the spatial information is conveyed by words (e.g., LEFT), symbols (e.g., a left-pointing arrow), and direction of motion (e.g., leftward movement), as well as for vocal responses of a spatial nature (e.g., the utterances LEFT and RIGHT; Wang & Proctor, 1996).

One interesting fact is that stimulus location affects performance even when it is irrelevant to the task. Thus, spatial compatibility cannot be ignored by a designer even when the relevant stimulus information is nonspatial. For example, if you are to respond to a red stimulus with a left response and a green stimulus with a right response, responses are faster when the stimulus and response locations correspond than when

-307-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Automation Technology and Human Performance: Current Research and Trends
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 348

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.