Automation Technology and Human Performance: Current Research and Trends

By Mark W. Scerbo | Go to book overview

perform the tasks in the allocated time period.

This model is unique in the sense that it is specifically designed to identify potential workload concerns at an early stage in the development process. While robust, the model is easy to use and the summary data analysis is easy to interpret. Results can be given in a graphical format for each operator or can be shown in a summary graphical format. The model can also be used as a sensitivity tool to conduct "what-if" analyses.

This discussion will describe the operator workload model, the procedure used to conduct the analysis, and the results that were generated to support Phase II Arsenal Ship development. The results confirm that during peace time cruising, the SMOC could be manned by a minimum crew of two. During war time cruising, the SMOC could be manned by a minimum crew of four.


THE NEED TO MODEL HUMAN AGENTS AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE IN DISTRIBUTED COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Joseph Psotka Army Research Institute

Human behavioral characteristics are critically important to determining the outcome of land combat but there are few ways of inserting them into modern simulations and models. In particular, current army doctrine depends upon cognitive, motivational, and moral variables such as leadership, level of training, unit morale and cohesion. Distributed interactive simulations using the High Level Architecture (HLA) and virtual training technologies have matured steadily for use in training diverse skills at dispersed or remote locations, or for refreshing previously learned skills or knowledge. Yet, these technologies still do not include the impact of human behavior in warfighting analyses or simulations. Current models of constructive simulations use attrition-based algorithms and do not include important variables such as information flow management, fear, training proficiency, artillery suppression, and fatigue. These are difficult issues to capture in computational models and require new avenues of research in this fundamentally important area for the Army, to correlate and leverage diverse efforts. Significant progress might be possible if research efforts took advantage of the advances in modeling human agents and human performance in distributed communications of intelligent agents within financial, economic, industrial, and entertainment industries; using architectures arising from artificial intelligence and virtual reality research, such as production rules, neural networks, and semantic network systems. The enormous cost of computers and networking systems can only be controlled by developing systems that work more efficiently with humans in the ways that humans work and think. Computers must carry more of the load. They are much too passive, and because they are deaf, dumb, and blind they often fail to take users' needs into account. Automated search technologies to produce latent semantic indexing appear to have a novel role. The potential gain from even small improvements in our understanding and ability to model human behavioral factors would be significant. Novel frameworks for modeling emotion and personality based on human cognitive modeling have arisen in the past years. Exploiting these theoretical developments and automated search and indexing technologies could fundamentally improve human behavior and decision making representation in CGF.


SMART SHIP

Commander R. T. Rushton United States Navy

SMART SHIP was initiated in late 1995 in response to the results of an NRAC summer study, tasked

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