Cognitive Process Instruction: Research on Teaching Thinking Skills

By Jack Lochhead; John Clement | Go to book overview

Approaches to Clinical Research In Cognitive Process Instruction

Herbert Lin


INTRODUCTION

Cognitive process instruction (CPI) is a view of instructional design which emphasizes thinking skills over factual knowledge. Research related to CPI usually makes use of a clinical method which seeks to illuminate the processes underlying behavior in complex intellectual domains. However at least two different perspectives on CPI research exist: deterministic and descriptive. The first verifies models by comparing the behavior of the model with that of the subject. The second verifies models through the consensus of a community of experts in either a psychological paradigm such as developmental stage theory (if the emphasis is on models of cognitive process) or a disciplinary paradigm such as physics (if the emphasis is on models for instruction). Certain issues arise in the choice of methodology: the diversity in the cognitive processes people use, the complexity of a model, the role of human judgement, the generality and utility of a particular approach.

This paper is intended as a brief introduction to these issues, with an emphasis on research methodology. It is directed primarily at the college instructor who has more than a passing interest in questions of pedagogy and who wants to know how to begin CPI research in his own subject area, but who does not qualify as an "expert" in cognitive psychology.

It is always risky to discuss the methodology of a field in which the methodology is far from established, so this paper must be taken as provisional. The last section of this paper presents factors that have influenced a personal choice of methodology. Of course, in no sense is this paper a summary judgement of the pros and cons of different approaches.

Cognitive process instruction is a view of instructional design which emphasizes cognitive skills relevant to understanding and thinking. It is different in scope from traditional cognitive psychology, and different in character from other approaches to educational improvement. Standard cognitive psychology deals with the entire range of human cognitive phenomena: perception, language, thinking, memory. Typical tasks include paired-associate learning (memorizing unrelated pairs of words), recall of nonsense syllables, problem solving (involving relatively simple problems), and perception of optical illusions. In contrast, CPI research is concerned almost exclusively with the relatively complex problems and situations that are characteristic of higher education, for example, a physics or a mathematics problem, or an essay assignment.

CPI research tends not to emphasize mathematical models, time-interval measurements, eye movements or statistics. Rather, it makes substantial use of

-11-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Cognitive Process Instruction: Research on Teaching Thinking Skills
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 348

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.