Cognitive Process Instruction: Research on Teaching Thinking Skills

By Jack Lochhead; John Clement | Go to book overview
as to account for the motion of various objects.
3. They then checked these qualitative statements to assess whether any intractable difficulties were likely to arise in applying the method.
4. Only then did these skilled problem solvers begin to apply the method quantitatively to produce mathematical equations.
In all cases, once a problem solver had selected a method and begun writing any equations, he was then successful in applying that selected method to solve the problem.Thus in several diverse settings it seems that low-detail, qualitative, often vague reasoning is crucial to effective problem solving, particularly at the beginning of the problem-solving process. What are the implications for science instruction?Students often think that qualitative reasoning (e.g., with diagrams or sketches) is illegitimate in the context of science. The reasons for this bias are clear. For want of space and time, textbook authors and lecturers commonly present only the final precise, mathematical form of an argument. They omit the initial stages in which qualitative low-detail reasoning is used to plan more detailed work. Thus students infer that all reasoning in science should be quantitative, and they are often puzzled about how such reasoning is done. For example, students often say things like, "I can follow all your reasoning, but I can't see how you decided what to do."The examples of research I've mentioned here suggest that the qualitative reasoning so often omitted is crucial to the process of "deciding what to do." What is needed is instruction aiding in using qualitative reasoning effectively to plan more detailed work.
SUMMARY
I've talked about three ideas which seem to be central to information processing models in several areas. These ideas are:
1. The importance of specifying not just actions, but also the conditions under which those actions can usefully be executed.
2. The importance of large-scale functional units--"scripts" or "methods" which a problem solver can use in place of piecemeal assemblying individual items of information.
3. The importance of low-detail qualitative reasoning to plan problem solutions before execution of details.

All three of these ideas could, I think contribute substantively to good science instruction, which too often focuses on what to do (and not on when to do it); on individual principles (rather than coherent methods); and on precise mathematical techniques (rather than more global qualitative reasoning).

-116-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Cognitive Process Instruction: Research on Teaching Thinking Skills
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 348

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.