Cognitive Process Instruction: Research on Teaching Thinking Skills

By Jack Lochhead; John Clement | Go to book overview

Some Thoughts on Reasoning Capacities Implicitly Expected of College Students

A. B. Arons


INTRODUCTION

In most text materials, homework problems, and lecture presentations encountered in college-level study of natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities, it is tacitly assumed that the students are already in command of a variety of thinking, reasoning, and linguistic processes. An attempt is made in this paper to identify and make explicit some of the more important tacit assumptions. Among the assumed capacities are reasoning patterns characterizing Piaget's category of formal operations, but there are also expected patterns of still higher complexity and sophistication.

In recent years the administration of Piagetian tasks in logical reasoning has revealed that a very large proportion of college students tend to use predominantly concrete as opposed to formal patterns of reasoning. This observation points to a profound discrepancy between most secondary-school- and college-level course content on the one hand, and the actual student reasoning patterns on the other: most course presentations assume that students are generally prepared to utilize formal reasoning processes.

Efforts are currently being made to devise ways of enhancing formal reasoning skills and to reduce this discrepancy. This suggests that one should examine in greater detail the common assumptions about modes and processes of student reasoning--beyond the Piagetian examples--which are implicit in college-level course materials. Bloom ( 1956) defined a taxonomy of educational objectives which encompasses some general skills and defines a very broad framework for curriculum design. My objective is different; it is to help isolate those reasoning abilities which are commonly and often inappropriately assumed to exist in all college students. What varieties of thinking, reasoning, and linguistic skills are tacitly assumed to be already available to the students? What further skills can be identified as implied objectives in undergraduate instruction?

Putting aside questions concerning the extent to which such reasoning capacities may or may not be developed in the student population, and also deferring questions about possible methods of instruction that might foster the development of such skills, this paper concerns, itself only with identifying what

____________________
1
Some of the content of this paper was originally developed in a discussion group which was part of the Symposium on Learning in Adolescence, held in connection with the bicentennial celebration of Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts in February 1978.

-209-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Cognitive Process Instruction: Research on Teaching Thinking Skills
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 348

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.