duction of free iodine and potassium hydrate from potassium iodide; (2) The oxidation of thallous to thallic oxide; (3) The oxidation of manganous to manganic oxide.

The first of these is the test most commonly employed. A paste is prepared by adding 10 parts of the best quality of starch to 200 parts of pure water, heating this until the starch gelatinizes, and then dissolving in it 1 part of pure iodide of potassium. This paste is then spread evenly on sheets of paper free from sizing, which are then rapidly dried without exposure to sunlight.

A slip of this paper 1/2 inch wide and 4 inches long is moistened in pure water and suspended where it will be screened from the sun, but exposed to diffuse daylight and to the air. The inside of the standard instrument shelter of the Weather Bureau is probably the best exposure obtainable. After being exposed for from eight to twelve hours the paper is taken down and dipped in water, and its color compared with a standard ozone scale of colors, arranged on a scale of 1 to 10.

The objection to this method is, as shown by Schönbein, that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as well as ozone reacts upon this paper, which is also hygroscopic, its indications varying with the relative humidity of the atmosphere.

Liquid Air. --Within recent years every known gas has been liquefied, including helium. Most matter can be readily changed from the solid to the liquid state, and from the liquid to the gaseous by the application of heat. The problem of the liquefaction of gases is mainly one of producing extreme cold. This is now best accomplished by causing a gas that has been cooled by expansion to circulate about the pipes containing the gas that is to be liquefied. Liquid air has about the same color and specific gravity as water. At ordinary pressure it boils at -312° F.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

HANN J., "Handbook of Climatology," translated by R. DeC. Ward, New York, etc., 1903, pp. 74-83.

RENK FRIEDRICH, "Die Luft," Leipzig, 1886. ( Pettenkofer & Ziemssen, "Handbuch der Hygiene und der Gewerbekrankheiten," 1. Teil; 2. Abteilung; 2. Heft.)

RAMSAY SIR WILLIAM, "The Gases of the Atmosphere; the History of their Discovery," 3d ed., London, 1905.

"Smithsonian Meteorological Tables," Edition of 1907, Washington, D. C.

-26-

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Descriptive Meteorology
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface and Credits vii
  • Contents ix
  • List of Illustrations xv
  • List of Charts xvii
  • Introduction 1
  • Bibliography 2
  • Chapter I- The Atmospheres of the Earth and of the Planets 4
  • Bibliography 13
  • Chapter II- Atmospheric Air 14
  • Bibliography 26
  • Chapter III- MicroÖrganisms and Dust-Motes of the Air 27
  • Bibliography 37
  • Chapter IV- Physical Conditions of the Sun and Its Relation to the Earth''s Atmosphere 38
  • Bibliography 45
  • Chapter V- Heat, Light, and Temperature 46
  • Bibliography 60
  • Chapter VI- Thermometry 61
  • Bibliography 68
  • Chapter VII- Distribution of Insolation and the Resulting Temperatures of the Atmosphere, the Land, and the Water 69
  • Bibliography 118
  • Chapter VIII- The Isothermal Layer 119
  • Bibliography 126
  • Chapter IX- Atmospheric Pressure and Circulation 127
  • Bibliography 170
  • Chapter X- The Winds of the Globe 172
  • Bibliography 188
  • Chapter XI- The Clouds 190
  • Bibliography 198
  • Chapter XII- Precipitation 199
  • Bibliography 214
  • Chapter XIII- Forecasting the Weather and Storms 216
  • Bibliography 242
  • Chapter XIV- Optical Phenomena in Meteorology 244
  • Bibliography 256
  • Chapter XV 258
  • Bibliography 281
  • Appendix 283
  • Charts 285
  • Index 333
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