CHAPTER X
THE WINDS OF THE GLOBE

Anemographs. --For a detailed study of atmospheric circulation instruments are necessary that will record both the direction and the velocity of the wind. For simply indicating the direction, wind vanes are almost universally employed. In Fig. 58 is shown a vane designed to record the direction of the wind. The vane itself is supported on friction rollers, shown at h in the detailed drawing. A slender rod supported by the same rollers extends downward inside the support, and has clamped upon it at e four cam collars, so arranged that with the vane pointing toward one of the cardinal points of the compass an electric circuit is closed through the corresponding spring. The cams overlap and are so set that when the wind vane points NW, NE, SE, or SW, the circuit is closed through two springs. A circuit closer on the clock of the register, shown in Fig. 59, Weather Bureau meteorograph, completes the circuit through the proper magnet or magnets once each minute, and the record shown at a, a, Fig. 60, results. The record sheet is wrapped around the register cylinder, as shown in Fig. 59, and the cylinder is revolved by the register clock at such a rate that the transverse parallel lines on the record sheet represent five- minute intervals of time. The position of the dots at a, a, Fig. 60, represents the direction from which the wind was blowing. Thus, the record shows that the wind was quite steady from the south until 4.35 P.M., when it changed successively to the SE, E, NE, N, and NW, and then back to the N, NE, and E. These variations in direction were caused by the passage of a thunderstorm. The record at c shows that the sun was shining continuously until 3.11 P.M., and the record at d that rain commenced at 4.41 P.M., and continued until 5.23 p.m.

Anemometers. --A great variety of instruments are available for recording the velocity of the wind. A common form is the Robinson anemometer shown in Fig. 58. It consists of four hemispherical cups attached to cross arms and mounted on a spindle, near the lower end of which is an endless

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Descriptive Meteorology
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface and Credits vii
  • Contents ix
  • List of Illustrations xv
  • List of Charts xvii
  • Introduction 1
  • Bibliography 2
  • Chapter I- The Atmospheres of the Earth and of the Planets 4
  • Bibliography 13
  • Chapter II- Atmospheric Air 14
  • Bibliography 26
  • Chapter III- MicroÖrganisms and Dust-Motes of the Air 27
  • Bibliography 37
  • Chapter IV- Physical Conditions of the Sun and Its Relation to the Earth''s Atmosphere 38
  • Bibliography 45
  • Chapter V- Heat, Light, and Temperature 46
  • Bibliography 60
  • Chapter VI- Thermometry 61
  • Bibliography 68
  • Chapter VII- Distribution of Insolation and the Resulting Temperatures of the Atmosphere, the Land, and the Water 69
  • Bibliography 118
  • Chapter VIII- The Isothermal Layer 119
  • Bibliography 126
  • Chapter IX- Atmospheric Pressure and Circulation 127
  • Bibliography 170
  • Chapter X- The Winds of the Globe 172
  • Bibliography 188
  • Chapter XI- The Clouds 190
  • Bibliography 198
  • Chapter XII- Precipitation 199
  • Bibliography 214
  • Chapter XIII- Forecasting the Weather and Storms 216
  • Bibliography 242
  • Chapter XIV- Optical Phenomena in Meteorology 244
  • Bibliography 256
  • Chapter XV 258
  • Bibliography 281
  • Appendix 283
  • Charts 285
  • Index 333
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