Studies in Personnel and Industrial Psychology

By Edwin A. Fleishman | Go to book overview

striking is the fact that the lecture method had practically no influence upon the discrepancies in rating. It is generally assumed that once an individual or a group of individuals learn that they have been behaving in a socially undesirable way, they will immediately take steps to change, particularly if is clear to these individuals that it is their responsibility to eliminate such errors. Our findings do not support such a notion. The acquisition of knowledge does not automatically lead to action.

The findings also indicate that once a group arrives at a decision to act, the members, even though they may act as individuals, take on that decision and act in accordance with it. The force of this group decision was evidently sufficient to overcome the resistance to change in habitual ways of thinking and acting. How these group forces were able to operate upon the individual the present study does not reveal. Further research is necessary to determine whether or not group decision leads to a "freezing of decision to act" whereas the lecture method does not.


SUMMARY

A formal lecture method was compared with group decision in inducing 29 supervisors of 395 factory workers to overcome their biased performance ratings. The results showed that only the group of supervisors involved in group decision improved in their ratings. The lecture group did not change and persisted in overrating the more highly skilled workers and underrating the less skilled. The conclusion was drawn that group decision is more effective than the formal lecture in overcoming resistance to change in behavior.


18. The Comparative Effectiveness of Electric and Manual Typewriters in the Acquisition of Typing Skill*

Henry L. Adams

THE CAPABILITIES of electric typewriters in speed and ease of operation exceed those of manual typewriters. For this reason, many business education authorities believe that typing students will reach a higher pro

____________________
*
From "The Comparative Effectiveness of Electric and Manual Typewriters in the Acquisition of Typing Skill in a Navy Radioman School," Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 41, 1957, pp. 227-30.

-167-

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