Studies in Personnel and Industrial Psychology

By Edwin A. Fleishman | Go to book overview

then classified as: (a) "Taught"--currently the subject of specific lessons of OCS instruction, and (b) "Not Taught"--pertains to a subject matter area in the curriculum, but not covered due to time or facility limitations.

A Junior Officer Training Requirements Checklist was sent to 340 commanding and executive officers of destroyer-type vessels, and was completed by more than 300 of them. 'The checklist was prepared in 10 forms, each containing approximately 100 incidents. Each form was sent to 30 to 50 officers, with instructions to make a judgment for each incident as to: "How soon [in number of months] after his reporting abroad [directly after being commissioned], under normal conditions, would you expect the new [reserve] officer to be able to handle the situation to your satisfaction?" From their answers an index of "time expectancy for satisfactory performance" was determined for each incident with high reliability. It was assumed that the sooner the ensign is expected to handle a situation satisfactorily, the more "important" it is that the relevant material be learned at OCS.

The findings indicate that the new ensign most frequently and most immediately will be called upon to draw on background relevant to human relations, leadership, and personnel administration skills; technical skills are expected to be developed later.

Suggestions are made for utilization of the current findings.

Naturally, if any considerable changes in the curriculum were to be made, follow-up studies should be conducted to see if the desired changes in on-the-job performance came about.

The case in point here has been the Navy's Officer Candidate School. However, the applicability of the methodology to other training and educational settings is apparent.


21. Teaching Machines*

B. F. Skinner

THERE ARE MORE people in the world than ever before, and a far greater part of them want an education. The demand cannot be met simply by building more schools and training more teachers. Education must become more efficient. To this end curricula must be revised and simplified, and textbooks and classroom techniques improved. In any other field

____________________
*
From Science, Vol. 128, No. 3330, 1958, pp. 969-77.

-190-

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