Studies in Personnel and Industrial Psychology

By Edwin A. Fleishman | Go to book overview

Section Four
MOTIVATION, ATTITUDES, AND MORALE

Introduction

WHY DO PEOPLE act as they do? Why does one group of workers restrict their production while others produce at high levels? What do people want out of their jobs? What are their needs? What goals do they seek to satisfy these needs? Why do some join unions? What factors make for satisfying work relationships and job satisfaction? How are the incentives provided in industry related to the motivations of organization members? What is "high morale" and how can we recognize it?

In this section we examine some principles and research bearing on these questions. The first article by McGregor, "The Human Side of Enterprise," introduces us to the central role of motivation in the social- industrial milieu and questions many of the assumptions reflected in traditional organizational structures and managerial policies. The article provides a framework for describing the complexities of human motivation. The organizing principle is the "need heirarchy" and McGregor shows how this principle relates to the motivation of human effort in organizations.

Too often management has taken an oversimplified view of employee motivation, placing the emphasis on economic motives. McGregor's article certainly illustrates how oversimplified the "economic man" assumptions are. Nevertheless, pay certainly is an incentive widely used in industry. The next article, by Rothe, takes a closer look at various financial incentive plans tried by industry. In "Does Higher Pay Bring Higher Productivity?" he reviews the research evidence on financial incentives and evaluates them in terms of motivational principles.

Next, Ross and Zander describe some research on "Need Satisfactions and Employee Turnover." This study focuses on employee needs for affiliation, recognition, autonomy, achievement, and fair evaluation and examines their relation to organizational stability.

The most effective incentives are those which are intrinsic in the job itself. However, traditional industrial engineering principles may work

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