Studies in Personnel and Industrial Psychology

By Edwin A. Fleishman | Go to book overview

significant direct relationship to his continuing to work for that company. These personal needs are for recognition, for autonomy, for a feeling of doing work that is important, and for evaluation by fair standards. In addition, knowing important people in the organization is related to continued employment. There are some indications that anxiety develops in those employees who state that their needs for autonomy and fair evaluation are not satisfied.

In addition to the degree of need satisfaction provided by the job, we examined the degree to which the employment situation limits satisfactions which the worker can receive from his family and from his community. We found that the extent to which the job interferes with family and community satisfactions is related to turnover as strongly as the failure to receive need satisfactions on the job. But interference with off-the-job sources of satisfaction is not related to experiencing dissatisfaction on the job. We interpret these results to mean that there are two essentially different kinds of reasons for leaving the employing organization. Some people resign for reasons of both kinds: the job itself does not satisfy needs, and it also keeps them from receiving satisfactions from other sources.


28. Job Design and Productivity*

Louis E. Davis

IT HAS LONG been taken for granted that specialization is the organizing principle of modern industry and the mainspring of its phenomenal productivity. However unfortunate some of the by-products of specialization, they have been accepted by and large as necessary evils. Better to put up with them, it seemed, than to attempt remedies which might impair efficiency and thus jeopardize the material gains of industrialization.

But are these actually the alternatives today? In the light of recent research and experiment, it appears to be high time to re-examine the issue. Has specialization perhaps been carried too far--to the point where productivity is adversely affected? Are fatigue, tension, low morale, absenteeism, turnover, and other causes of inefficiency actually the result

____________________
*
From "Job Design and Productivity: A New Approach," Personnel, Vol. 33, 1957, pp. 418-30. The author wishes to express his appreciation to Dr. Ralph R. Canter for his collaboration in developing the concepts and supervising the experiments reported in this paper.

-267-

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