Studies in Personnel and Industrial Psychology

By Edwin A. Fleishman | Go to book overview
of our problems by making the machines do the work--job design will remain a central problem for industry not only in the area of production and clerical jobs but, in view of the requirements of functional organization, at supervisory and managerial levels as well.
Appendix

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
1. Job: The structure of tasks assigned to an individual together with the work methods and the setting. The content of a job comprises the following:
a. Work Content: The assigned series of tasks which arise from the requirements of the technical process or the equipment used or from traditionally established needs.
b. Methods Content: The specification of the ways in which the work activities are to be performed, including tools, equipment, and location. It is often referred to as methods design.
c. Organization Content: The organizational setting in which the assigned tasks are to be carried out--for example, the location of the job in a work group, hierarchical relations, and so on.
d. Personal Content: The factors in the job that affect personal behavior, growth, motivations, etc.
2. Job Design: The process of specifying the content of a job (work, methods, organizational, and personal content) in terms of a job definition or a job description.
3. Total Economic Cost: The total cost of producing a unit of product or service. In addition to the immediate charges for labor, materials, overhead, and so on, it includes the relevant long-term charges for economic, engineering, organizational, social, psychological, and physiological costs.
4. Economic Productivity: Productivity measured on the basis of total economic cost--that is, direct productivity modified by the addition of appropriate overhead or hidden charges stemming from absenteeism, labor turnover, quality failures, inflexibility, and so on.
5. Minimum Cost: The cost of producing a unit of product or service which includes only the immediate charges for direct labor, materials, and overhead.

29. Employee Participation in a Program of Industrial Change*

John R. P. French, Jr., Ian C. Ross, S. Kirby, J. R. Nelson, and P. Smyth

SEVERAL YEARS ago the management of a well-known men's apparel manufacturing company decided to modernize its production methods. In the past, programs to improve work methods had often provoked so much

____________________
*
From Personnel, Vol. 35, 1958, pp. 16-29.

-281-

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