Studies in Personnel and Industrial Psychology

By Edwin A. Fleishman | Go to book overview
ceives that satisfaction as stemming from his total job situation. I believe that this definition includes the most useful parts of each of the other concepts. High morale, under this concept, would be reflected by little aggressive or frustration-instigated conflict, by a reasonably euphoric work force, by fairly well-adjusted employees who can become quite ego-involved in their work, by many favorable attitudes, and by the cohesiveness which comes from finding personal need satisfactions within a group.

This definition contains five attributes which are, I believe, essential to an adequate concept of morale: (a) it recognizes the dynamic complexity of morale. It is the kind of complexity which can use--which, in fact, calls for--the factor analytic approach to definition. It tells us that morale is not a single dimension but that it has many components or factors. It asks only that the factors be defined in terms of human needs, rather than in terms of environmental sources of satisfaction of those needs. (b) It considers morale as basically an attribute of the individual. Groups too can be described in terms of morale, but such a description takes as its point of departure the perceived satisfactions of the individuals within the group. It seems to me that the morale of a group is at least partly based upon what I choose to call the morale of the individuals in it. This, I think, is something more than the usual concept of job satisfaction. (c) It recognizes that morale exists with reference to the job, not merely as a generalized trait existing in much the same form regardless of the job situation. (d) It recognizes the role of the motivational processes in morale. It implies that an individual may have many needs, and that these can be satisfied, either objectively or within the perceptions of the individuals, by the job at which a man makes his living. (e) It can apply to employees at any job level or in any job classification: street sweepers or college professors, traveling salesmen or lighthouse operators, authors, and even industrial psychologists.


32. Motivational Aspects of Industrial Morale*

Ross Stagner

MY DEFINITION OF morale falls into the category which is "almost acceptable" to Dr. Guion, as he has outlined it in the preceding paper.

____________________
*
From "Industrial Morale (A Symposium) 2. Motivational Aspects of Industrial Morale," Personnel Psychology, Vol. 11, 1958, pp. 64-70.

-304-

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