Studies in Personnel and Industrial Psychology

By Edwin A. Fleishman | Go to book overview
11. Reorganization of the company to save its lost market for its
    product and to look for an additional market is the prime
    problem.
OTHER
3. (Legal) Manufacture of one product which (a) competes against
    many larger manufacturers with greater facilities in competi-
    tive market, and (b) is perhaps due to lose to a related
    product much of its market.
14. (Legal) Board of Directors.
8. (Public relations) The handling of employee relations--particu-
    larly the company-union relationship.
17. (Industrial relations) Can we get the various departments to-
    gether to form a team in communications and cooperation.
19. (Medical) 1. Reorganization of corporate structure
2. Lines of authority and command
3. Personnel relations.
21. (Purchasing) We should start to think and organize for our
    peacetime economy.
22. (Research and development) Overcentralized control by the
    president.
23. (Research and development) No formal organization with duties
    defined.

44. Some Effects of Feedback on Communication*

Harold J. Leavitt and Ronald A. H. Mueller

THE EXPERIMENTS reported here are concerned with the transmission of information from person A to person or persons B. Our problem deals with only one of the many relevant variables, the variable of feedback. The question becomes: how is the transmission of information from A to B influenced by the return of information from B to A? It is apparently taken for granted in industry, in the lecture hall, and in radio that it is both possible and efficient to transmit information from A to B without simultaneous feedback from B to A. On the other hand, the information theories of the cyberneticists and, to some extent, trial and error concepts in learning theory suggest that for A to hit successfully

____________________
*
From Human Relations, Vol. 4, 1951, pp. 401-10.

Readers familiar with the work of Professor Alex Bavelas will doubtless correctly recognize that many of the theoretical and experimental ideas in this research had their origins in his group. We are most grateful to Dr. Bavelas for both his direct and indirect help

-418-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Studies in Personnel and Industrial Psychology
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 638

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.