Studies in Personnel and Industrial Psychology

By Edwin A. Fleishman | Go to book overview
Sleight attributes the differences between the scales used in his experiment to the variation in their "effective" area: the larger the area to be scanned the less accurate the reading. Such an explanation does not account, however, for the difference between the horizontal and vertical scales which he also found to be significant and which the present work suggests is the more important difference. From a physiological point of view, an explanation can be based on the shape of the visual field and the mechanics of eye movements. Objects that subtend an angle of more than ½° at the eye can be detected if they lie within a field whose boundaries are approximately 100° to the right or left of the point of fixation, 70° above it and 80° below it. The width of the visual field is thus considerably greater than its height, which is one factor that might favor the reading of horizontal scales. This is simply another way of saving that the eyes are set in the head in a horizontal line. The linear displays as they appeared in this experiment subtended an angle of approximately 10° at the eye. No difficulty should have been experienced, therefore, in finding the pointer even at the top of the vertical scale. The region of foveal vision, however, only subtends an angle of about 3' at the eye and, in order to read the scale, it is necessary to focus on the pointer itself. During very short exposures the accuracy of reading therefore depends upon the speed with which eye movements can be made. Scanning along a horizontal line is a relatively simple action involving the use of the lateral and medial recti muscles only. Raising or lowering the eyes, on the other hand, involves the joint action of the superior and inferior recti and the inferior and superior obliques. According to Duke-Elder5 it has been shown by photographic studies that the eyes can follow lines in the horizontal plane more easily than in any other. It has been found, moreover, that horizontal eye movements are the most rapid and vertical ones the slowest. When the fact that people are accustomed, when reading, to scanning along a horizontal line is added to this evidence, it is not difficult to explain the superiority of the horizontal scale.
SUMMARY
1. The speed and accuracy of reading comparable horizontal, vertical, and circular scales has been studied by means of a film. Pictures of the scales were flashed on a screen at 10-sec. intervals, the exposure time being ½ sec.
2. The vertical scale is clearly less easy to read than either of the other two displays, particular difficulty being experienced near its ends.
3. The success of the circular scale may be attributed to the fact that it presents a smaller area to be scanned. The shape of the visual field and the relative ease of moving the eyes from side to side, rather than up and
____________________
5
W. S. Duke-Elder, Textbook of Ophthalmology ( London: Kimpton, 1932).

-616-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Studies in Personnel and Industrial Psychology
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 638

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.