workers, is to reproduce the racially structured labor market and class structure that discriminates against minorities and immigrants. Another effect is that within the workplace, racial categories and racism become tools for management to divide and control workers. These are dynamics that individuals and organizations interested in social change must become more familiar with--not just in Silicon Valley but elsewhere. As for the situation in highly "innovative" Silicon Valley itself, to date, neither labor, women's, nor ethnic organizations have made major inroads in challenging the hiring hierarchy ( Hossfeld 1991). But challenge it we must. Equality of opportunity, both at work and away from it, cannot be achieved unless we learn to recognize and reject practices that are based on "simple formulas" about gender, race, and nationality.