becoming visible. We see evidence that open-ended questions requiring higher- level thinking promote conceptual mathematization. However, the barriers to wide application are massive. We believe that multiple-choice questions should be abolished, but we must design clever open-question tests, and come up with alternative ideas in testing (keeping in mind the principles discussed in this chapter). We must investigate the actual effects on learning and teaching when using "proper" tests and evaluate their practicality. We must encourage test developers to develop such tests, and we must design an innovation strategy to convince teachers and parents and politicians of the merits of such testing.
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