NOTES

1: VISITING EDWARD BERNAYS
1.
Stuart Ewen, Captains of Consciousness: Advertising and the Roots of the Consumer Culture ( New York, 1976).
2.
Stuart Ewen, All Consuming Images: The Politics of Style in Contemporary Culture ( New York, 1988).
3.
Following this logic and grabbing a factoid, apparently out of thin air, Bernays accounted for Ronald Reagan's popularity in the following terms: "Reagan was interviewed by the Harvard Crimson and they came back and recorded that he had an IQ of 105."
4.
See Eric F. Goldman, Two Way Street: The Emergence of the Public Relations Counsel ( Boston, 1948), for a general outline of this perspective.
5.
Underlining Bernays's spectacular capacity to create circumstances that transcended the ordinary--his ability to make news--a couple of years after my visit to Bernays, when he was 102 years old, a public brouhaha blew up in the Boston Globe, stories reporting a battle for the old marks affections that was then taking place between Bernays's daughters and his fifty-year-old housekeeper with whom he was, reportedly, having a torrid love affair.

2: DEALING IN REALITY: PROTOCOLS OF PERSUASION
1.
The term compliance professionals is taken from Robert Cialdini, Influence: The New Psychology of Modern Persuasion ( New York, 1984).
2.
Edward L. Bernays, "The Engineering of Consent," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 250 ( March 1947), pp. 113-20.
3.
Lynn Palazzi, "College Lite," New York Newsday December 1, 1993, Part 2, pp. 54-55.
4.
John R. MacArthur, The Second Front: Censorship and Propaganda in the Gulf War ( New York, 1992), pp. 58-59. MacArthur added that prior to his work for the Kuwaiti royals, Gary Hymel was known "as the apologist for Turkey's habitual torture, killing, and unjust imprisonment of its own citizens, as well as for the persecution of its hapless Kurdish minority" (p. 59).
5.
Stephen Engelberg, "A New Breed of Hired Hands Cultivates Grass-Roots Anger," New York Times, May 17, 1993, pp. A1, A17.
6.
Elyse M. Rogers, Life Is in the Balance (Form No. 233-00010-988 BDG) (Midland, Mich.: Dow Chemical Company, 1988).
7.
"A Call to Admen: Help Stop Riots," Advertising Age 63 ( May 4, 1992), pp. 1, 49.
8.
Edward L. Bernays, Crystallizing Public Opinion ( New York, 1923, 1961), p. 35.
9.
Edward L. Bernays, Propaganda ( New York, 1928), p. 19.
10.
Bernays, Crystallizing Public Opinion, p. 217.

-415-

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