BERNARD E. ANDERSON
How Much Did the Programs Help Minorities and Youth?
EMPLOYMENT and training programs have been characterized by continuously changing objectives. At the time of their inception, during the early 1960s, such programs were developed to provide new job skills to help reduce long-term unemployment among experienced members of the work force who had lost their jobs as a result of automation and technological change. In recent years, however, such programs have assumed increasing importance as instruments to help reduce racial inequality in economic life. This chapter will attempt to explain how much employment and training programs have contributed to improvement in the relative labor-market status of minorites and youth, and why, despite large expenditures on manpower programs, minorities and youth continue to occupy an unfavorable position in the labor market.
This discussion is based on a review of policy-development and program- implementation experience and the evaluation literature that measures the