The closest approximations to a global, theoretical, and scientific worldview in Egyptian times were magic and demonology, although the Egyptians had considerable practical information about mathematics, biology, and even engineering. Even so, it is only in ancient Greece that we find anything resembling true scientists. Although they did not have the sophisticated technology that we have today, men like Thales, Anaximenes, Anaximander, and others were possibly the first to adopt scientific methodology, theory construction, and testing via observation.
This merits some further comment, for even historians often fail to appreciate how similar the "Greek mind" was to the contemporary scientific mind. To grasp this, it is necessary to try to attend to the world from their perspective. They had none of today's technology -- no microscopes, no telescopes, and no body of scientific theory. Consequently, they had to conduct their scientific speculations by the "seat of their pants," so to speak.