Costa Rica: Quest for Democracy

By John A. Booth | Go to book overview

This shared culture has helped keep Costa Rica considerably more peaceable than its neighbors, but it has not prevented inequality, social mobilization, conflict, and political turmoil. The following chapters examine political participation and political culture in more detail. They seek to understand how Costa Ricans engage each other and the state in the political arena, as well as the attitudes and values they bring to the process.


NOTES
1
Mavis Hiltunen de Biesanz, Richard Biesanz, and Karen Zubris de Biesanz, Los costarricenses (San José, Costa Rica: Editorial Universidad Estatal a Distancia, 1979), pp. 281-282.
2
Estimate based on Inter-American Development Bank (IADB), Latin America After a Decade of Reform: Economic and Social Progress in Latin America, 1997 Report ( Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997), tables A-1, A-2.
3
Based on Biesanz et al., Los costarricenses, pp. 244-251. Income shares for each group are very rough estimates; the Biesanzes did not estimate shares for all classes.
4
The Gini coefficients in Table 5.1 confirm declining income inequality, but the benefits clearly failed to reach the poor.
5
Estimate derived from income distribution and median income data in Table 5.1.
6
Carlos Castro Valverde, "Sector público y ajuste estructural en Costa Rica (1983-1992)", in Trevor Burns, ed., La transformación neoliberal del sector público: Ajuste estructural y sector público en Centroamérica y el Caribe ( Managua: Coordinador Regional de Investigaciones Económicas y Sociales, 1995), pp. 74, 104-105.
7
Castro Valverde (ibid., pp. 63-67) shows that taxes were shifted to the poor and that government sharply reduced spending and investment in education and health.
8
Ibid., pp. 66-67. See also Jorge Rovira Mas, Costa Rica en los años '80 ( San José, Costa Rica: Editorial Porvenir, 1989), pp. 108-135.
9
Larry Rohter, "Costa Rica Chafes at New Austerity", New York Times, September 30, 1996, p. A7.
10
Biesanz et al., Los costarricenses, pp. 273-277; Carlos Meléndez and Quince Duncan, El Negro en Costa Rica ( San José: Editorial Costa Rica, 1972); John A. Booth, Alvaro Hernández C., and Miguel Mondol V., Tipologia de comunidades, vol. 2: Estudio para una tipologia de comunidades ( San José, Costa Rica: Direccion Nacional de Desarrollo de la Comunidad-Acción Internacional Técnica, 1973); Rohter, "Costa Rica Chafes," p. A7; The Black Community in Costa Rica, Mesoamerica, March 1994, pp. 11-13.
11
Marcos Guevara Berger and Rubén Chacón Castro, Territorios indios en Costa Rica: Origenes, situación actual y perspectivas ( San José, Costa Rica: Garcia Hermanos, 1992); Biesanz et al., Los costarricenses, pp. 270-273; Mesoamerica, December 1993, p. 10.
12
Biesanz et al., Los costarricenses, pp. 277-280; Martha Honey, Hostile Acts: U.S. Policy in Costa Rica in the 1980s ( Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1994).
13
Mesoamerica, February 1995, p. 4.
14
Costa Rica became a diocese in 1850, having been previously under the Managua diocese. This section draws heavily on Philip Williams, The Catholic Church and Politics in Nicaragua and Costa Rica ( Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1989), chs. 5-7; and Biesanz et al., Los costarricenses, ch. 9. 101

-100-

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Costa Rica: Quest for Democracy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page v
  • Contents ix
  • Illustrations xiii
  • Acronyms xvii
  • Preface xxi
  • 1 - Latin American Democracy and Costa Rica 1
  • Notes 12
  • 2 - Contemporary Costa Rica In Central America 17
  • Notes 30
  • 3 - The Historical Development of Costa Rican Democracy 32
  • Notes 53
  • 4 - The Political Framework of Democracy 56
  • Notes 78
  • 5 - Social Structure and Civil Society 82
  • Notes 100
  • 6 - Political Participation 103
  • Notes 125
  • 7 - Political Culture 129
  • Notes 151
  • 8 - Political Economy in Transition 154
  • Notes 174
  • 9 - Costa Rica in the World 177
  • Conclusions 192
  • 10 - Analysi5 and Conclusions: Can Democracy Survive? 195
  • Notes 208
  • Appendix 211
  • Index 219
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