The present book brings to completion a program -- not to say a "fiveyear plan" -- of joint research and writing begun with preparatory meetings in New York and Moscow in 1989. The idea of a joint book in international law was launched with the encouragement of senior academics in both the United States and the then-Soviet Union. Abram Chayes, Thomas M. Franck, Richard N. Gardner, G.I. Tunkin, and V.S. Vereshchetin participated in the initial bilateral meetings, along with others who later became members of the authors' group or are separately acknowledged below. Harold Berman, W.E. Butler, John N. Hazard, Louis Henkin, Peter Maggs, Vratislav Pechota, Oscar Schachter, Louis Sohn, and Paul Stephan advised in the formulation of the work program and the identification of potential participants and have lent the benefits of their expertise at various points as the project progressed.
From the American Society of International Law, John Lawrence Hargrove has guided the project both substantively and administratively; Mary Ellen Thompson has provided administrative support. On the Moscow side, V.S. Vereshchetin supervised the project's activities; Ludmila Korbut executed arrangements in Moscow. The efforts of the staffs of the cosponsoring institutions were especially appreciated in connection with the group meetings held in December 1989 ( Moscow), October 1990 ( Washington, D.C.), September-October 1991 ( Moscow), April 1992 ( Washington, D.C., and New York City), and December 1992 ( MOSCOW).
Students at Columbia University translated drafts from Russian into English in the early stages of the project and assisted in editing the joint manuscripts as we proceeded toward publication. They include Susan Bauer (M.I.A. 1992), Krystian Czerniecki (class of 1995), Karen Knop (LL.M. 1990), Jonathan Narins (J.D. 1991), and Michael E. Rinzler (class of 1995). Dora Barbera expertly prepared the final version of the manuscript.
The editors acknowledge the contributions to the group's endeavors of Marina Bardina, Levan B. Imnadze, Harold Hongju Koh, Nikolai B. Krylov, Sarah Reynolds, Edith Brown Weiss, and Olga Zhurek, who par-