tive and judicial supervision.119 Throughout the world, as the environmental impact of transnationals becomes more urgent -- and more transborder -- it should become even clearer that only through international status, supervised by international agencies and international tribunals, can the problems of transnationals be adequately addressed.
The main obstacle is that, so far, almost all relevant parties have opposed international personality for transnational enterprises. While international legal status for individuals is threatening enough to state sovereignty, most states, developing countries in particular, are likely to view such a development as over-empowering the very entities, corporations, that are already overly powerful. Perhaps the present gridlock can be broken by the formerly socialist states, which are in the process of reexamining their own relationships to transnationals, given their need and desire for development, as well as their growing awareness of the fragility of their own environments. Only five years ago a Soviet legal theorist could state: "It is certainly not mere chance that various attempts to recognize international personality of [transnational enterprises] are connected with either negation of or of diminishing the part of sovereign States in the international field. And this contradicts the progressive trends of modern international law development."120 Today, these "progressive trends" and notions of sovereignty are, perhaps, ready for reexamination.
With the end of the Cold War, the replacement of one superpower with numerous new states, and the substitution of the threat of global military conflict with the reality of worldwide economic competition, international law is truly at a crossroads. Whether it takes the path of stability or the path of expansion, whom it recognizes as participating members of the new international legal order will eventually shape almost every realm of doctrine and practice, from sources of law to substantive norms, from international economic law to the law of the sea and outer space, to international dispute resolution.