The Military Revolution Debate: Readings on the Military Transformation of Early Modern Europe

By Clifford J. Rogers | Go to book overview

Notes
1. A number of scholars have been kind enough to read drafts of this article and offer me their corrections and comments: thanks are especially due to my dissertation advisor, John E. Guilmartin, Jr. ; to Andrew Ayton; Russell Hart; Geoffrey Parker; John Lynn; Williamson Murray ; Anne Curry; Robert D. Smith; and the students in the Ohio State University seminar on "Technologically Oriented Military History" ( Winter-Spring 1991), particularly Capt. Peter Mansoor. Thanks are also due to the Ohio State University for the Research and Graduate Council Fellowship which supported me while I researched and wrote this article, and the U.S.-U.K. Fulbright Commission for the grant which enabled me to put the finishing touches on it.
2.
Stephen Glick has pointed out, however, that Sir Charles Oman may have prior claim to the concept: Oman 1898 essay, The Art of War in the Middle Ages, refers to the time when pike-and-shot infantry took the premier part in withstanding the Ottomans as "the military revolution of the sixteenth century." C. W. C. Oman, The Art of War in the Middle Ages, revised and edited by John H. Beeler (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1953), 162.
3.
Michael Roberts, "The Military Revolution, 1560-1660" reprinted in his Essays in Swedish History ( Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1967), and above, Ch. 1.
4.
Geoffrey Parker, "The 'Military Revolution, ' 1560-1660 -- a myth?" Journal of Modern History 48 ( 1976) (above, Ch. 2); Geoffrey Parker, The Military Revolution: Military innovation and the rise of the West ( Cambridge: Cambridge U.P., 1988), 2.
5.
Parker, "The 'Military Revolution"214 (above, p. 49), et passim.
6.
E. g. Michael Duffy (ed.), The Military Revolution and the State, 1500-1800, Exeter Studies in History 1 ( Exeter: University of Exeter, 1980), 3; John A. Lynn, "The Growth of the French Army during the seventeenth century" Armed Forces and Society VI ( 1980). Cf. William H. McNeill, The Pursuit of Power ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), chs. 3 & 4, and John Lynn review article, "Clio in Arms" Journal of Military History 55 ( January 1991).
7.
Parker, Military Revolution, 4. All the participants on the Military Revolution Roundtable at the 1991 American Military Institute conference in Durham, North Carolina -- i.e., myself, John F. Guilmartin, John A. Lynn, and Geoffrey Parker -- agreed on the centrality of this question.
8.
Previously cited works by Roberts, Parker, Duffy. Roberts, "Military Revolution" p. 195 (above, p. 13), specifically states that the Military Revolution "stands like a great divide separating mediaeval society from the modern world." Others include: John A. Lynn, "The trace italienne and the Growth of Armies: The French Case" Journal of Military History 55 ( July 1991); Simon Adams, "Tactics or Politics? 'The Military Revolution' and the Hapsburg Hegemony, 1525-1648" in The Tools of War ed. J. A. Lynn. (Champaign, Illinois: U. of I. Press, 1990); David A. Parrott, "Strategy and tactics in the Thirty Years War: the 'military revolution'." Militiirgeschichtliche Mitteilungen XVIII, 2 ( 1985) (below, Chs. 7, 9, 10); and Jeremy Black new book, A Military Revolution? Military Change and European Society 1550-1800 (Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1990), which emphasizes the military changes which took place in the century after 1660. His work, though it seriously underestimates the military changes of the sixteenth century, does have important contributions to make for the seventeenth and eighteenth century phases of the process of Western military innovation which fit nicely with the "punctuated equilibrium evolution" model which I will develop later in this article.

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