The Military Revolution Debate: Readings on the Military Transformation of Early Modern Europe

By Clifford J. Rogers | Go to book overview

other variables affected the course of every siege. But in the broad analysis the trace italienne, unquestionably a tactical revolution in military architecture, accomplished a political revolution as well: restoring to the smaller states of Europe a military defensibility otherwise lost in the fifteenth century with the development of effective siege cannon.


Notes

I would like to thank Derek Croxton, Paul Kennedy, Geoffrey Parker, David Parrott, Clifford Rogers, and Geoffrey Symcox for their many helpful comments and suggestions. I am also grateful for the financial support of a John M. Olin Postdoctoral Fellowship at the International Security Program at Yale University.

1.
Geoffrey Parker, The Military Revolution ( Cambridge 1988) 43.
2.
Salient examples of epic sieges are the Imperial siege of Metz in 1552, the Spanish siege of Antwerp in 1584-1585, the Spanish siege of Breda in 1624-1625, the royal French siege of La Rochelle in 1627-1628, and the Dutch siege of s'Hertogenbosch in 1629. For capsule surveys of significant siege campaigns see Christopher Duffy, Siege Warfare, The Fortress in the Early Modern World 1494-1660 ( London 1979).
3.
The words of a 1643 pamphleteer quoted in Charles Carlton, Going to the Wars, the Experience of the British Civil Wars 1638-1651 ( London 1992) 158.
4.
John A. Lynn, "The trace italienne and the Growth of Armies: The French Case, The Journal of Military History 55" ( 1991). Reprinted above, Ch. 7.
5.
The thesis that fortification costs bankrupted Siena was first voiced in Judith Hook, "Fortifications and the End of the Sienese State," History 62 ( 1977).
6.
Geoffrey Parker, The Military Revolution ( Cambridge 1988) 12.
7.
Piero Del Negro, review of Geoffrey Parker, "The Military Revolution" ( Cambridge 1988), Rivista Storica Italiana 102 ( 1991) 258.
8.
Simon Adams, "Tactics or Politics? 'The Military Revolution' and the Hapsburg Hegemony, 1525-1648," in John Lynn, ed. Tools of War (Urbana, Illinois 1990) 36. Reprinted below, Ch. lo, here at p. 259.
9.
William H. McNeill, The Pursuit of Power. Technology, Armed Force, and Society since A.D. 1000 ( Chicago 1982) 91. My thanks to Clifford Rogers for bringing this passage to my attention.
10.
Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000 ( New York 1987) 23-24.
11.
For the Medici see J. R. Hale, "The End of Florentine Liberty: the Fortezza da Basso," Renaissance War Studies ( London 1983) 38; Daniela Lamberini, "Le mura dei bastioni di Pistoia: una fortificazione reale del '500," Pistoia Programma 7 ( 1980); Andrea Andanti, "L'Evoluzione del sistema difensivo di Arezzo: 1502-1560" in Carlo Cresti, Amelio Fara, and Daniela Lamberini, eds. Architettura militare nell'Europa del XVI secolo ( Siena 1988) especially fig. 1; and Daniela Lamberini, "Giovanni Battista Belluzzi ingegnere militare e la fondazione di Portoferraio," in Giuseppe M. Battaglini, ed. Cosmopolis: Portoferraio Medicea secoli XVI-XVII ( Pisa 1981). For the Este see Umberto Malagù, Le mura di Ferrara (Ferrara 1960) and Paolo Ravenna, ed., Le mura di Ferrara (Ferrara 1983) especially the diagrams on 31-36. For the Savoia see Martha D. Pollak, Turin 1564-1680; Urban Design, Mili-tary Culture, and the Creation of the Absolutist Capital ( Chicago 1991).

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