THIS STUDY has been a long time in preparation, and the number of people to whom I have become obligated are legion. I am particularly grateful to the skill, patience, and good humor of numerous librarians across the country: John Knowlton and John McDonough at the Library of Congress, Ralph L. Hazeltine at the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society in Wilkes-Barre; Kenneth W. Duckett, previously at the Ohio Historical Society, Mrs. Virginia R. Gray at the Duke University Library, James W. Patton at the Southern Historical Collection at the University of North Carolina Library, James Servies at the William and Mary College Library, Robert L. Brubaker at the Illinois State Historical Library, Mrs. Lee Jordan at the Cincinnati Historical Society, and Mrs. Laura D. S. Harrell at the Mississippi Department of Archives and History. I also want to thank the library staffs at the University of Virginia, the Virginia State Library at Richmond, the New York Public Library, the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission in Harrisburg, the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, the Free Library of Philadelphia, and the Sutro Library in San Francisco. Mrs. Ann Reed and her staff in the newspaper room and the staff of the Interlibrary Loan Department at the University of California Library at Berkeley were marvelously helpful and attentive to my needs. Woodrow W. White of the West Virginia State Auditor's Office and Miss Daphne Gentry of the Virginia State Library provided vitally needed Virginia tax data.
Professor Charles Sellers of the University of California at Berkeley initially suggested the topic to me and guided my work in its early