CHRISTIANITY AND HELLENISM
THE essential life of the modern world, its chief creating and animating forces, come from two countries, Palestine and Greece (for convenience I shall group Christianity and Judaism together and not attempt to analyse their differences). Suppose these countries had never been, take away their contributions, and what we mean by Europe would not exist. He who knows Palestine and Greece, knows the germ of four-fifths or more of Western civilization, and has seen its animating and sustaining forces in their simplest and purest form. This chapter attempts to indicate the chief contribution made to our civilization, in points where Hellenism is deficient, by that Judaic-Christian view of life for which no single name exists, but which Matthew Arnold called Hebraism.
There are obvious difficulties in the attempt. The subject is vast. Further, impartial treatment is difficult. 'The eyes of critics, whether in commending or carping, are both on one side, like a turbot's.' There are Hellenists for whom Christianity is exhausted by the figures of a fundamentalist Presbyterian, an Erastian Anglican and a 'supple Jesuit'. There are Christians who stress the weaker and darker sides of the classical world. But the