I would like to express my indebtedness to a number of people who generously assisted me during the course of this study: Frank Reynolds, who read several drafts of the manuscript and provided helpful suggestions and encouragement at various points along the way; John Strong, who saw the manuscript in an early draft several years ago and subsequently acted as an important resource person for me; Jan Nattier, who gave this study a close and critical reading; Charles Prebish, who critiqued sections dealing with vinaya; Gregory Schopen for invaluable bibliographic help; Dan Getz, who kindly fielded my Sinological questions; Lama Ugyen Shenpen for help in locating Tibetan material; and John Rockwell and Jules Levinson, each of whom provided helpful suggestions. I want especially to thank Judith Simmer-Brown, my long-standing friend and colleague in the Buddhist Studies Department at Naropa Institute, who read several chapters and engaged in a lively dialogue with me as the ideas of this study took shape. Thanks also to Charles Long for his constant challenge to look "behind the scenes," not only of religion, but of the scholarship that seeks to understand it, and for his specific support of this project; and to the late Mircea Eliade and Joseph M. Kitagawa, for their personal examples and their encouragement. I want to thank my colleagues Bob Lester and David Carrasco of the University of Colorado for their support during the time this study was in progress. My appreciation goes to the Buddhist Studies students of the Naropa Institute and to the students of Religious Studies at the University of Colorado, where many of the ideas of this study were first tested. I also want to thank Virginia Boucher and her staff in the Interlibrary Loan Department at the University of Colorado for an exemplary success rate in procuring the resources needed for my research. Particular thanks go to the National Endowment for the Humanities for providing a fellowship underwriting the initial stages of my research; to Martha Bonzi for underwriting a semester of release time during the writing; to Lex Hixon, member of the Board of Trustees of the Naropa Institute, fufor generous grants facilitating the completion and publication of this book; and to Naropa Institute and its former presidents Judith Lief and Barbara Dilley for moral support and sabbatical grants, which helped me bring this study to completion. Thanks to L. S. Summer for her assistance; and special appreciation to Beverly Armstrong for her very substantial editorial contributions to this project. I owe a particular debt to the Ven. Chögyam Trungpa ( 1939-1987), who initially encouraged me to carry through a study of the Buddhist saints, of which this is the first part, and who suggested the initial questions and perspectives that led me into this fascinating territory. Finally, I want to express my appreciation to my wife, Lee, whose insight, warmth, and good sense have provided an important precondition for this study.