Pāli and Sanskrit terms are romanized following generally accepted practice. Tibetan is rendered according to the Wylie method and Chinese according to the Wade-Giles system. In the interests of stylistic consistency and to avoid creating unnecessary confusion for the nonspecialist reader, the Sanskrit versions of terms are used, generally also including cases where Pāli and Tibetan texts are being discussed. There are a few exceptions, of which the reader will be advised in the notes, in which the preference for Sanskrit is suspended, particularly in sections where Pāli texts alone are treated. In cases where it is important for the reader to know both the Sanskrit and Pāli of a term, both are given at first occurrence. Italicized foreign terms, unless otherwise noted, are Sanskrit.
Sanskrit words now commonly appearing in English are not italicized. The class names of the major types of Buddhist saints discussed in this book are not italicized, as all but one (the pratyekabuddha) now occur in English. Sanskrit terms, whether naturalized or italicized, are given in standard spelling with diacritics. Occasional exceptions are terms and place names that have become familiar in English in a different form (e.g., brahmin as opposed to brāhmaṇa).
Sanskrit and Pāli texts are referred to in their standard editions. Tibetan texts are generally referred to according to the Peking edition of the Tibetan Tripiṭaka, with exceptions noted. References to Chinese texts are to the Taishô Tripiṭaka, exceptions again noted. For the reader's convenience, citations to Buddhist texts are followed by references to European-language translations, where these exist. Original texts are usually cited by volume and page number of the edition (sometimes including line numbers when specific terms are in question), followed by volume and page number of the translation.
This book contains a great number of references, and citations to text editions and translations are particularly frequent. To help the reader keep track of which texts are being referred to, textual citations are generally given in the body of the text rather than in the notes. In order to minimize visual cluttering, I have adopted several conventions. First, I have generally used abbreviations for text titles and also for translators or translations when they are frequently cited. All of these are given in the list of abbreviations. Second, when a text is frequently cited, I have sometimes adopted a reference form for the original that may also be used to locate the passage in translation. This has been possible particularly in the cases of texts entirely or mostly in verse in which verses contain the same numbering in text edition and standard translation (for example, the Theragāthā, Therīgāthtā, Suttanipāta, and Dhammapada). All such reference forms are explained in the