some point, possibly still quite early, the term arhant took on the twofold meaning that is present in the Pāli and Sarvāstivādin sources and in Hsüan-tsang's report, referring to two different types--those who have gained realization through the meditative way and those who have followed a nonmeditative path. Arhant can now refer not only to a forest meditator but also to a town-and-village renunciant or settled monastic understood to have reached a certain level of attainment. (5) The monasticization of the term may well have contributed to the diminishing of the charisma of the arhant, at least in the eyes of some, beginning at an early time. 66 In any case, arhant came to have multiple meanings and different evaluations by different traditions, and debates arose concerning the definition and status of the arhant ( Bareau 1957). As noted, it was not only the Nikāya schools that became involved in struggling with the issue of the arhant but also the Mahāyāna traditions. The case of the Lan + ̄kāvatāra Sūtra is particularly revealing. As we have seen and shall see in more detail, the text prefers to define the arhant as the conservative, scholastic, monastic ideal of the śrāvakas. At the same time, it admits but disfavors the use of the term for more bodhisattva-like figures. In doing so, it reveals the considerable continuity between the forest arhant and the bodhisattva of the forest. This in turn suggests that the bodhisattva, at least as interpreted as a forest ideal, represents a less dramatic innovation than might otherwise be thought. Rather, the forest bodhisattva may be seen as the Mahāyānist way of continuing to breathe life into the ancient ideal of the Buddhist saint of the forest, the integrity and charisma of which were being diminished, so it is suggested here, by the monasticization of the arhant.
|a.||A set of four arhants is found in the Ekottarāgama (T. 125, K. 44, 789a), the Mi lê hsia shêng ching (T. 453, 422b) and the Śāriputraparipṛcchā (T. 1465, 902a): Mahākāśyapa, Piṇḍolabhāradvāja, Kuṇḍopadhānīya, and Rāhula.|
|b.||Two sets of eight arhants are given in the Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa (ed. T. Ganapati Sastri, 1:64 and 111). The first list contains Śāriputra, Maudgalyāyana, Mahākāśyapa, Subhūti, Rābula, Nanda, Bhadrika, and Kaphiṇa. The second list contains Śāriputra, Maudgalyāyana, Gavāṃpati, Piṇḍolabhāradvāja, Pilindavatsa, Rāhula, Mahākāśyapa, and Ānanda.|