Buddhist Saints in India: A Study in Buddhist Values and Orientations

By Reginald A. Ray | Go to book overview

lated the pratyekabuddha, retaining something of his charisma but reducing him so that the figure he presents is harmonious rather than at odds with Buddhism as then understood. As we have seen, the pratyekabuddha himself reflects an ideal of forest renunciation that is perhaps close indeed to the ideals of the Buddha and earliest Buddhism. In his assimilated state, however, the pratyekabuddha has been quite thoroughly woven into the logic of established Buddhism.


Notes
1.
Two full-length modern studies on the pratyekabuddha in Buddhism have appeared: Kloppenborg 1974, which focuses almost exclusively on Pāli texts, and Wiltshire 1990, which, although emphasizing the Pāli sources, includes discussion of Sanskrit texts. The primary value of Kloppenborg's work in the present context consists in her attempt to identify some of the principal themes associated with the pratyekabuddha in the Pāli texts. Wiltshire's study is particularly valuable both for pointing to principal hagiographic themes and for attempting to discern particular patterns and structures in the pratyekabuddhas' lives. For some other scholarly discussions of the pratyekabuddha, see Charpentier 1908; La Vallée Poussin 1908-27c; Dutt 1930, 80ff.; Fujita 1975; de Jong 1976; Gombrich 1979; and Norman 1983.
2.
Tib., rang.sangs.rgyas (enlightened by oneself).
3.
For a summary of these definitions, see La Vallée Poussin 1908-27c and Conze 1962, 167.
4.
Pratyekabuddhas are always depicted as men.
5.
For some textual references, see PTSD 385, s.v. paccekabuddha. See Wiltshire's summary of these three points (W., xi-xii).
6.
Vsm 376 (N., 412); La Vallée Poussin 1971, 1:2.
7.
See also Vsm 116 (N., 120); Vsm 234 (N., 251-52); La Vallée Poussin 1971, 4:176, 267, 273; 5:8-9, 124.
8.
Vsm 443 (N., 488).
9.
La Vallée Poussin 1971, 2:193-96 and 5:73; La Vallée Poussin 1908-27c, 152- 54; Fujita 1975. Vasubandhu explicity identifies a second category of pratyekabuddhas alongside that of solitary renunciant, namely, those who live together in a group (vargacarin) ( La Vallée Poussin 1908-27c, 153; and La Vallée Poussin 1971, 2:194 and 4:177).
10.
See, e.g., Asp 3ff. (Cz., 84ff.) and Sps 30ff. (Kn., 30ff.). See also La Vallée Poussin 1908-27c, 152-54 and Dutt 1930, 80-81.
11.
La Vallée Poussin's translation and additions ( 1908-27c, 153).
12.
Dutt 1930, 81; Asp 115-18 (Cz., 162-65); Candrakirti, cited by La Vallée Poussin 1908-27c, 153; Lamotte 1980, 2234-35.
13.
La Vallée Poussin remarks that many additional "technical details" concerning the pratyekabuddha are found in the works of both Nikāya and Mahāyāna Buddhism ( 1908- 27c, 153-54). There is some disagreement among Mahāyāna schools concerning the enlightenment of the pratyekabuddha. The Saddharmapuṇḍarika Sūtra, for example, holds that ultimately there is not a separate vehicle for pratyekabuddhas and śrāvakas, but that both will eventually become bodhisattvas and enter the Mahāyāna, the only true vehicle. The Prajñāpāramitā, by contrast, maintains that pratyekabuddhas and śrāvakas each have their own vehicles through which they may attain nirvāṇa.
14.
Wiltshire is thus quite right, in his analysis of the pratyekabuddha, to classify the Buddhist sources as falling into two quite distinct genre types: "narratives (stories and

-241-

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Buddhist Saints in India: A Study in Buddhist Values and Orientations
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Contents xi
  • Conventions xiii
  • Abbreviations xv
  • Introduction 3
  • Notes 10
  • 1 - The Buddhist Saints and the Two-Tiered Model of Buddhism 15
  • Notes 36
  • 2 - Buddha Śākyamuni as a Saint 44
  • Notes 68
  • 3 - Saints of the Theragāthā and Therīgāthā 79
  • Notes 99
  • 4 - Some Orthodox Saints in Buddhism 105
  • Conclusion 136
  • Notes 141
  • 5 - Saints Criticized and Condemned 151
  • Notes 173
  • 6 - Cults of Arhants 179
  • Notes 205
  • 7 - The Solitary Saint, the Pratyekabuddha 213
  • Notes 241
  • 8 - Bodhisattva Saints of the Forest in Mahāyāna Sūtras 251
  • Appendix: the Minor Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā Sūtra on Forest Bhikṣus 275
  • Appendix: the Minor Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā Sūtra on Forest Bhikṣus 280
  • 9 - Ascetic Traditions of Buddhist Saints 293
  • Notes 318
  • 10 - The Buddhist Saints and the Stūpa 324
  • Notes 352
  • 11 - The Cult of Saints and Buddhist Doctrines of Absence and Presence 358
  • Notes 386
  • 12 - The Buddhist Saints and the Process of Monasticization 396
  • Notes 423
  • Conclusion: Toward a Threefold Model of Buddhism 433
  • Notes 447
  • Bibliography 448
  • Index 469
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