Buddhist Saints in India: A Study in Buddhist Values and Orientations

By Reginald A. Ray | Go to book overview

of the Mahāyāna and its forest saints. In the writing of the Milindapañha, the Vimuttimagga (in its final form), and the Visuddhimagga, we may be observing settled monasticism in the process of appropriating something of the charisma of the saints and their forest way of life, while subjecting them to the process of monasticization--and here Buddhaghosa is the past master--to make them more harmonious with the particular institutional exigencies of its kind of Buddhism.


Notes
1.
Here, as elsewhere with regard to the Buddhist saints, this is a tendency toward type but not an invariable rule, for there are exceptions. For some examples, see the Conclusion. Although the texts cited in this chapter typically refer to the renunciant as a male, as we have seen, female forest renunciants are also known.
2.
The close connection between the forest life and the Buddhist saints was noticed long ago by La Vallée Poussin ( 1929).
3.
For other references in the Pāli texts, see PTSD 78, s.v. ariyavaṃsa. The four āryavaṃśas are mentioned in the Sanskrit Nikāya sources. In the Abhidharmakośa, for example, we find the list cīvara, piṇḍapāta, śayanāsana, and prahāṇabhāvanārāmatā, which La Vallée Poussin equates with nirodhamārgārāmatā ( 1923-31, 6:146). The U+0101ryavaṃśas are mentioned in the Mahāyāna sūtras such as Rps ( 13.17-18 and 14.7) and Kp ( 6.17, 123.3, and 126.7). They are also mentioned in the Ugraparipṛcchā translated by Schuster as "1) being content with one robe, 2) being content with one meal a day, 3) being content with one couch, and 4) being content with one medicine for illness"; see Schuster's discussion of this list ( 1985, 36-37). On the āryavaṃśas, see also Ruegg 1969, 457ff. and BHSD 105, s.v. āryavaṃśa.
4.
For a list of references to the four in the Pāli and Sanskrit literature, see PTSD 374, s.v. nissaya and BHSD 306-7, s.v. niśraya.
5.
Listed in their Sanskrit form in Mvy 8670-73. In Ta, song of Mahākāśyapa, we read a typical expression of the ideal: "For whom left-over scraps suffice as food, smelly urine as medicine, the foot of a tree as lodging, a rag from a dust heap as robe, he is truly a man of the four quarters" (1057).
6.
I follow Frauwallner's usage here; the renunciants referred to are, of course, not settled monastics.
7.
See, e.g., Prebish 1973, 676-77.
8.
PTSD lists the following as meanings of the term dhuta (and dhūta): "1. shaken, moved . . . 2. lit., 'shaken off,' but always expl. in the commentaries as 'one who shakes off' either evil dispositions (kilese), or obstacles to spiritual progress (vāra, nīvaraṇa)" (342, s.v. dhuta). The term has similar meanings in Sanskrit, listed by Edgerton as "purified, got rid of (evil . . .)" ( BHSD 285, s.v. dhuta).
9.
The code itself is designated in Sanskrit and Pāli by a number of closely related terms and variations of them. For a discussion of the major Sanskrit designations, see BHSD 285, col. 2, s.v. dhuta; dhutaguṇa (dhūtaguūa); dhutaguṇin; dhutadhara; and dhutadharma; and 286, col. 1, s.v. dhutaguna. For Pāli terms, see PTSD342, s.v. dhutan + ̄ga; this entry includes discussions of dhutadhara, dhutavata, and dhutavāda. Edgerton comments that PTSD contains some important gaps in its summary, for a few of which see the BHSD 285, col. 2 listings mentioned here.
10.
For some discussions of the dhutaguṇas, see Kern 1886, 75-76 and 1901-3, 2:16-

-318-

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Buddhist Saints in India: A Study in Buddhist Values and Orientations
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Contents xi
  • Conventions xiii
  • Abbreviations xv
  • Introduction 3
  • Notes 10
  • 1 - The Buddhist Saints and the Two-Tiered Model of Buddhism 15
  • Notes 36
  • 2 - Buddha Śākyamuni as a Saint 44
  • Notes 68
  • 3 - Saints of the Theragāthā and Therīgāthā 79
  • Notes 99
  • 4 - Some Orthodox Saints in Buddhism 105
  • Conclusion 136
  • Notes 141
  • 5 - Saints Criticized and Condemned 151
  • Notes 173
  • 6 - Cults of Arhants 179
  • Notes 205
  • 7 - The Solitary Saint, the Pratyekabuddha 213
  • Notes 241
  • 8 - Bodhisattva Saints of the Forest in Mahāyāna Sūtras 251
  • Appendix: the Minor Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā Sūtra on Forest Bhikṣus 275
  • Appendix: the Minor Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā Sūtra on Forest Bhikṣus 280
  • 9 - Ascetic Traditions of Buddhist Saints 293
  • Notes 318
  • 10 - The Buddhist Saints and the Stūpa 324
  • Notes 352
  • 11 - The Cult of Saints and Buddhist Doctrines of Absence and Presence 358
  • Notes 386
  • 12 - The Buddhist Saints and the Process of Monasticization 396
  • Notes 423
  • Conclusion: Toward a Threefold Model of Buddhism 433
  • Notes 447
  • Bibliography 448
  • Index 469
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