My chief debt is to Philip M. Taylor of the University of Leeds, who inspired me as an undergraduate and supervised my graduate research. I also owe much to my other teachers at Leeds, especially Roy Bridge, Professor David Dilks, Nicholas Pronay, Owen Hartley and the late Graham Ross; to Professor Donald Cameron Watt of the London School of Economics, for his numerous helpful comments, and to my colleagues in the School of History at the University of Birmingham. For finance I am grateful to the British Academy, to the Harkness Fellowship program of the Commonwealth Fund of New York, and to the Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Foundation. For help on the tortuous road to publication, I am grateful to Professor Henry Winkler--a generous reader--and my editor at Oxford University Press, Nancy Lane.
I am indebted to the Departments of History and Religion, and the Program in Afro-American Studies at Princeton University for their hospitality during the American phase of this research, and particularly to Arthur N. Waldron, now of the U.S. Naval War College, Newport, R.I., whose friendship and intellectual enthusiasm sustained me through my bleaker months. I have learned much from my fellow scholars particularly Anthony Aldgate, Ben Alpers, Susan Brewer, Angus Calder, Davíd Carrasco, Robert Cole, David Culbert, Fred Inglis, Fred Krome, Tom Mahl, C. J. Morris, Thomas Troy, and John Young. I am grateful to Harold Evans of Random House, for his encouragement, for employing me as a research assistant, and for allowing some portions of that research to appear here.
The most enjoyable and productive moments of my research have most certainly been my contacts with the survivors of the war years, especially Joan and Geoff Galwey, the late Graham Hutton, John and Brenda Lawler, Hermione MacColl, Peggy Macmillan, Leonard Miall, Janet Murrow, and Chaim Raphael, who were particularly generous with their time, encouragement, and hospitality; also the late George Ball, Sir Maurice Bathurst, Sir Isaiah Berlin, Wallace and Peggy Carroll, Alistair Cooke, Walter Cronkite, David Daiches, Lionel Elvin, Douglas