American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California

By James N. Gregory | Go to book overview

Notes

Introduction
1.
Dorothea Lange, "The Assignment I'll Never Forget: Migrant Mother", Popular Photography 46 ( Feb 1960), 42-43; Paul Taylor, "Migrant Mother: 1936", American West 7 ( May 1970), 41-45; Milton Meltzer, Dorothea Lange: A Photographer's Life ( New York, 1978), 132-36.
2.
See, for example, Dan Fowler, "What's Become of the Okies", Look ( Jan 13, 1953), 19-21; Oliver Carlson, "Up from the Dust", U.S.A. ( Aug 1952), 97- 104; "Grapes of Joy", Newsweek ( Sept 3, 1945), 31; or the more recent articles cited elsewhere in this volume.
3.
The church listings are from the Bakersfield telephone directory. The area's recent political leanings are discussed in Tony Quinn, "Anatomy of an Electorate: 75% Faithful, 25% Fickle", California Journal 13 ( March 1982), 100-102; Michael Barone , Grant Ujifusa, Douglas Matthews, The Almanac of American Politics 1978 ( New York, 1977), 77-81; The Almanac of American Politics 1982 ( Wash., D.C., 1982), 100-101; Michael W. Donley, Stuart Allan, Patricia Caro, and Clyde P. Patton , Atlas of California ( Culver City, Calif., 1979), 54-57.
4.
Ernest L. Martin interview, by Judith Gannon, South Pasadena, April 15, 1981, California Odyssey Oral History Program, California State College, Bakersfield, 32-33.
5.
These are minimal migration estimates based on the number of Southern and West North Central Division natives living in the West, Northeast, and East North Central Division in 1970. U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1970 Census of the Population,Subject Reports: State of Birth

-257-

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American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Introduction xiii
  • Part I - Migration and Resettlement 1
  • 1 - Out of the Heartland 3
  • 2 - The Limits of Opportunity 36
  • 3 - The Okie Problem 78
  • 4 - The Dilemma of Outsiders 114
  • Part II - The Okie Subculture 137
  • 5 - Plain-Folk Americanism 139
  • 6 - Up from the Dust 172
  • 7 - Special to God 191
  • 8 - The Language of a Subculture 222
  • Appendix A - Public Use Microdata Samples 249
  • Appendix B - Southwesterners in California Subregions 1935, 1940, 1950, 1970 250
  • Appendix C - Occupation and Income 1940-1970 252
  • Appendix D - Marriage Survey: Sources and Methodology 254
  • Abbreviations 255
  • Notes 257
  • Index 327
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