as inapplicable to "positions" which carry salary payment and annual vacations; and still others in this field think of their work as a steppingstone
to executive positions.Deducting a part of the office workers as, at least at present, unorganizable, there remain out of forty-eight million workers, some twenty-five
millions in jobs which might be unionized. Yet even this figure is too high.
It fails to take account of the many unemployed. It fails to take account of
the many small factories in which individual bargaining is almost a matter
of course. It fails to take account of the "sweated" workers, especially
women, whose slight bargaining strength and temporary employment allow
little possibility of organization. Furthermore it fails to consider the problem
of the Negro, against whom even the unions have frequently discriminated.With all these deductions, the organizable working class must total,
in a favorable year, about twenty million. Even this figure is by no means
a ceiling. As the idea of unionism becomes more dominant in the manual
group, it penetrates previously untouched white-collar areas. In recent years
the rise of unions of newspaper reporters, insurance agents, teachers, actors,
and office employees has been extraordinary.
BROOKS, R. R. R., When Labor Organizes. Yale University Press. New Haven. 1938. Chap. VI and Appendix.
DAUGHERTY, CARROLL R., Labor Problems in American Industry. Rev. Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. Boston. 1938. Chaps. XII and XIII.
LABOR RESEARCH ASSOCIATION, Labor Fact Book, Volume IV. International Publishers. New York. 1938. Chap. VII.
LESCOHIER, D. D., and
ELIZABETH BRANDEIS, History of Labor in the United States,
1896-1932, Vol. III. The Macmillan Company. New York. 1935. Chaps. I
LORWIN, LEWIS L., The American Federation of Labor. Brookings Institution. Washington, D. C. 1933. Appendix A.
MILLIS, HARRY A., and
ROYAL E. MONTGOMERY, Labor's Progress and Some Basic
Labor Problems. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York. 1938. Chap. I.
WOLMAN, LEO, Ebb and Flow in Trade Unionism. National Bureau of Economic
Research. New York. 1936.
GUSTAV PUCK, "Labor Groups in the Social Structure" in Recent Social
Trends in the United States. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York. 1933.
|1. ||What were the major shifts in occupational distribution between 1870 and 1930?|
|2. ||Account for the decline between 1870 and 1930 in the proportion of American workers engaged in agriculture.|