THIS WORK could not have been completed without the help and direction of a vast number of people. First, I must thank Howard Lamar for introducing me to Western American history, and Alec Douglas and John Herd Thompson for introducing me to Canadian history. I heartily thank the Canadian government for their grant, and Judith Costello, Dr. Clark Cahow, and Patrice LeClerc for their help in my completion of the Canadian research. I must also thank the following archivists for their patience and assistance: George Miles and Susan Bach of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University; Tom Clark of the Duke University Divinity School Library; Patricia Birkett and Timothy Dubé of the National Archives of Canada; Dorothy Keally, Laurel Parsons, and Terry Thompson of the Anglican Church Archives; Ian Mason of the United Church Archives; the staff of the Archives of Ontario; Ann Yandle of Special Collections and University Archives at the University of British Columbia Library; Brian Moore of the British Columbia Archives; Vernon Leighton at Winona State University. Additionally, I would like to thank John Webster Grant, Jean Friesen, and Robin Fisher for answering what I know they considered to be strange questions. They were all more help than they may ever know.
I owe a special debt of gratitude to my advisors, John Herd Thompson and Peter Wood. They never said no to any of my ideas and let me puzzle them out on my own. I greatly appreciate the freedom that they granted me in this endeavor. Additionally, I would like to thank Frederick Hoxie, Jean Barman, and my colleagues at Texas A&M University: Thomas Dunlap; Larry Yarak, who read various sections of the manuscript and provided invaluable insight into the writing process; and Daniel Bornstein, for suggesting the term redeemable savage. Much of the credit for this completed work goes to Durwood Ball, James Rosenheim, and Julia Kirk Blackwelder. Their comments and insights shaped