The Influence of Grenville on Pitt's Foreign Policy, 1787-1798

By Ephraim Douglass Adams | Go to book overview

RUSSIAN ARMAMENT OF 1791 AND RUPTURE OF TRIPLE ALLIANCE

When in 1788 the Triple Alliance had been signed between Holland, England, and Prussia, it was understood that a check was to be put upon the ambitious designs of Russia and Austria in Turkey and of Austria in Germany. Pitt in fact regarded the alliance as an instrument suited to maintain the existing balance, and saw in this the best interests of both England and Prussia. Yet by 1790 it became evident that Frederick William II had schemes of aggrandizement for his country. His diplomats busied themselves in intrigues, planning a revolution in Galicia and sustaining a similar movement in Belgium; signing secret treaties with the Turks, then at war with Austria and Russia; proposing a Polish cession of Danzig and Thorn to Prussia; and encouraging Gustavus III of Sweden in his attack upon Catherine II. The Prussian diplomacy failed in every direction and the Prussian ministers found themselves confined to only two points of their wider intrigues--the limitation, if possible, of Austrian annexations, and the manipulation of the terms of the treaty of peace to be signed between Russia and Turkey. But in this latter plan, since England and Prussia were agreed to prevent any acquisition of territory by Russia, Frederick William II saw the opportunity of saving his prestige in the diplomatic field and of drawing a distinct benefit from the Triple Alliance.* He therefore urged the English government to act with him in bringing pressure to bear upon Russia, and to this Pitt at first agreed.

At the opening of the negotiations with Russia in September, 1790, the instructions of Leeds to Whitworth, the English representative at St. Petersburg, ordered him to insist on a restoration of the status quo ante bellum and went so far as to threaten an English-Turkish alliance if this was not conceded. Catherine II, however, was determined not to make peace without some acquisition of territory, and fixed upon the fortress of Ochakov with the surrounding district as the least price at which she would discontinue war. Moreover, Pitt's supporters were not united in favor of an anti-Russian policy. As early as December, 1790, Auckland, who was throughout his career an advocate of a peaceful diplomacy for England, began to interject in his letters to Grenville arguments against the project of a Russian war. In this he was earnestly supported by Van der Spiegel, the Grand Pensionary of Holland; for Holland by the terms of the Triple Alliance seemed likely to be drawn into a contest in which she had no real interest. Auckland's first letter to Grenville on this topic was

____________________
*
Sorel, II, 154-155.
See Pitt speech in the Commons, March 29, 1791. Parl. Hist., XXIX, 52-55, 70-75; also Lecky, V, 292.

-11-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Influence of Grenville on Pitt's Foreign Policy, 1787-1798
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 80

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.