The process of selecting units was constrained. We were limited to units that were not deployed, and the units we initially selected were given very little notice. In most cases, the units responded positively, and we were very pleased with the support the commanders gave to the study. A couple of times, the unit we had originally selected was not available, and our service contact in the service headquarters assisted us in selecting a replacement that was available. We were also limited in the number of different locations to which we could travel. In an ideal research situation, we would have maximized the number of geographical locations from which we selected units to minimize the effect of any single location. Additionally, an ideal research effort would also study units while they were deployed, to include Navy ships at sea. Nonetheless, we are confident that the research sample was sufficient to illuminate certain issues worthy of further research and to identify trends and patterns across the services, across personnel according to their experience and grades, and across different types of units.
The units selected generally represent two categories: units with newly opened occupations, and newly opened units. To determine which units had occupations newly opened to women and filled by women, we used DMDC data that listed the units with billets coded to the newly opened occupations and indicated which of those billets within the unit were filled by women.
We surveyed and conducted interviews and focus groups with individuals from five Army units. We also interviewed command per