Definition of Values: Structure of Goals
Our general discussion of the nature, structure, and function of norms, values, and goals calls for two next steps: (1) defining of values; (2) narrowing of the theme of our study to the structure of values and goals.
Znaniecki distinguishes standards of behavior from norms of conduct: Standards are evaluations of objects; norms of conduct evaluate activities in relation to those standards. Writing about prophets, priests, missionaries, propagandists, and others, Znaniecki argues: "Their evaluative judgments concerning certain objects are supposed to express not merely their own intellectual and emotional experiences, but standards in accordance with which everybody ought to define and evaluate these objects. Their judgments about the desirability or undesirability of certain ways of acting in situations which include these objects are supposed to express not merely their own volitions that something should be done or not done, but norms of conduct which everybody ought to consider obligatory for any agent who deals with such situations." Situations are evaluated by actors in terms of those standards and norms. Both are essential in any ideological model, and, Znaniecki continues, they were frequently confused: "Standards refer to objects with which human agents are dealing and norms to activities bearing on these objects." 1
Thus Znaniecki distinguishes between an ideal court of justice, the standard, and the administering of justice, guided by norms of justice.
Parsons's definition relates to the symbolic nature of values and to choice-- search for alternatives, an element of decision making: "An element of a shared symbolic system which serves as a criterion or standard selection of the alternatives of orientation which are intrinsically open in a situation may be called a value. 2
Perry defines values clearly in terms of "interest." He selects it because it is