Ideologies, Goals, and Values

By Feliks Gross | Go to book overview

8
Horizontal Sequence of Goals: Goals and Incentives

Horizontal Goal Structure

At this point we shall separate the last links of our sequence of goal formation, the sequence that begins with need or stimulus (see Table 7.1) and shall concentrate attention exclusively on decision → action → goals. We shall return to or reduce the complex analytical model to the initial elementary one (see

figure 6.1
). This separation is also relevant in terms of immediate (proximate) causality, which precipitates action. The goals associated with the will that the goal generates becomes an antecedent (a cause, in our daily terminology); actions, in turn, become a sequent or an effect. Information about the antecedent permits a hypothesis, an educated guess about the sequent and vice versa. Information about an antecedent (decision) suggests the nature of a future sequent (course of action) to be taken; again, observation of actions (sequents) suggests what may be called "an educated or informed guess" about the cause (decision). Relevant goals are organized in patterns called projects or plans. Goals are plotted in terms of time and space and can be visualized as temporary stations on a linear, horizontal action path. We shall call such a sequence a horizontal value or goal structure (see
figure 8.1
). The time space is indicative of relevance or of pragmatic considerations.


Horizontal Goal Structure

A project can be visualized as a linear, horizontal path divided into stages, or segments. Stages are courses of actions directed toward stage goals. The time distance of stage goals is determined by their nature, relevance, function, risks, and conditions of success. Goals, which can be achieved at a set time, might be not available anymore later: for example, a deadline for a grant application, opportunities in business, an opportune political situation in foreign policy plan-

-103-

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Ideologies, Goals, and Values
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Recent Titles in Contributions in Sociology Series Editor: Don Martindale ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Figures and Tables vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Introduction xxi
  • Acknowledgments xxxiii
  • Part I Ideologies 1
  • 1: The Directive and Regulatory System 3
  • 2: Ideologies--The World Outlook and Values 26
  • 3: The Structure of Ideologies 44
  • 4: The Appeal and Function of Values 58
  • 5: Definition of Values 71
  • Part II Goals 75
  • 6: Types of Goals 77
  • 7: Formation of Goals 91
  • 8: Horizontal Sequence of Goals 103
  • 9: Strategies 119
  • 10: Social Planning and Ethics 128
  • 11: The Logic of Planning 145
  • 12: Distant Goals 156
  • 13: Social Rhythm and Cyclical Goals 183
  • Part III Values 209
  • 14: Hierarchies of Values 211
  • 15: Multiple Sets of Values 237
  • 16: In Search of Universal Values 273
  • 17: Toleration and Pluralism 300
  • Bibliography 321
  • Index 337
  • About the Author 345
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