Meanwhile, apart from those cathedrals which were directly inspired by the masterpieces of the architects of the Royal Domain, others present distinctive characteristics which give the buildings of the same region a certain family resemblance.
Some cathedrals in the east and south-east preserve the memory of Romanesque architecture and Carolingian traditions in their plan and sometimes even in their elevation.
Begun between 1048 and 1083, Verdun Cathedral was enlarged and completed with transepts and an eastern choir, which were consecrated in 1147. Influenced by the great Carolingian monuments of the east and of the Rhineland, it has a double sanctuary--a polygonal one to the east, and the other, with a flat chevet, to the west--double transepts and four towers at the end of an aisled nave. But the decoration of one of the doors of the north transept also shows the ascendancy of Burgundian sculpture, which was so influential in the Romanesque period. In the first half of the thirteenth century, the aisles of the nave, the two pairs of transepts and the old choir were provided with diagonal-ribbed vaults, and the nave rather later, at the end of the fourteenth century. Chapels were added to the aisles in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Following a fire in 1755, the crypts were filled in, the windows transformed, the west front and many other parts of the building modified.
The choir of Toul Cathedral, with an apse at the east end and flanked by towers as at Verdun and Châlons-sur-Marne, was constructed between 1221 and 1260. The transepts, with their great windows full of light, and the nave, with an elevation of two stages (main arches and clerestory with a wall passage) were erected in the course of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, partly under the direction of the architect Pierre Perrat who was also the architect of the cathedrals at Verdun and Metz. The Flamboyant west front dates from the end of the fifteenth century. On the south of the choir stands a beautiful thirteenth-century cloister.